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chapter 5 on-site

conventional system 36" of soil minimum
pressurized in-ground enough natural soil for system, still need 36" til bedrock
mound 12"-24" so you bring in fill to make up the difference
sand filter may be used for very wet or near bedrock
Soil type 1 sand with minimal silt
soil type 4 or 5 low absorption and is poor- high clay
absorption field trench dimensions 12-18 inches deep and 12-36 inches wide
distances between trenches and ground water 24 inches
primary treatment removes large objects and about 40% of BOD
secondary treatment removes an additional 45-55% of BOD
2 types of secondary treatment Trickling filter and activated sludge process
trickling filter bed of stones 6 feet deep (used for smaller wwtplants
activated sludge aerobic bacteria are fed into aeration tanks and stimulate rapid growth of aerobic bacteria which consume suspended solids and nutrients
tertiary treatment chemical coagulation then sedimentation and filtration- basically drinking water
activated carbon granules in rapid sand filters and remove 98% of organics
rapid infiltration large amounts of wastewater applied to land and allowed to percolate into groundwater
overland flow wastewater is allowed to flow down graded surface that is planted with vegetation (used for clay soils with limited absorption)
what removes 50-90% of bacteria, 30-50% of ascaris and 80% of schistosomes primary sedimentation
excreta contains 2000 million fecal, 450 million streptococci, 400 billion E. coli per 100-200 grams zone of degredation
eutrophic Having waters rich in mineral and organic nutrients that promote a proliferation of plant life, especially algae, which reduces the dissolved oxygen content and often causes the extinction of other organisms.
oligotrophic low productivity, high o2, good drinking water
nutrients associated with eutrophication phosphates, nitrogen, organic carbon
what functions as a biological treatment system, sedimentation tank and conditioning tank? septic tank
minimum liquid volume of a septic tank 750 gallons
detention time for septic tanks should not be less than 24-72 hours
garbage grinder into septic tank means increase size by 50%
sludge accumulation per person per year 18-21 gallons per person per year (69-80 liters)
mixture of gravel, sand, silt, clay and decayed plant and animal matter loam
volume of dosing tank should be equal to 60% of the volume of the lines dosed
examples of things that are not easily destroyed by chlorination of sewage entamoeba histolytica, hepatitis, giardia cysts
color of soil that would be best for adsorption yellow, brown or red
BOD biochemical oxygen demand (the dif between initial dissolved o2 in a sample and after a period of time
BOD time frams 5 day test
what is non toxic to aquatic, a good viricide and adds oxygen to treated wastewater effluents? ozone
soil characteristic with lack of aeration mottled brown and red soil
pH range of secondary treatment of effluent six to nine
sulfuric acid in septic tanks unclogs pipes and fittings in septic tanks
what reduces fecal coliforms to 200 mg/l or less? combined chlorine
man made organic compounds refractory organics like DDT
sewer gas may contain (3) H2S, methane, chlorine
holes more than ___ feet need side wall protection to prevent cave in 3 feet
field lines or tiles (legs of drainfield) must be at least how many feet apart? 6 feet
how many inches does backfill over drainfield need to be? 12 inches
maximum length of septic system materials 75 feet
Created by: sanitarianpankey
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