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Nervous System

Chapter 10 Anatomy & Physiology

this employs chemical messengers called hormones to communicate with cells Endocrine System
this uses electrical signals to transmit messages at lightening speed Nervous System
the system that only consists of the Brain and spinal cord is called the Central Nervous System (CNS)
the system that consists of the vast network of nerves throughout the body is called Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
these cells are excitable, impulse-conducting cells that perform the work of the nervous system Neurons
These cells protect Neurons Neuroglia
these are also called Glial Cells Neuroglia
these cells form the myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord Oligodendrocytes
these cells line the spinal cord and cavities of the brain, they also secrete cerebrospinal fluid Ependymal cells
these cells preform as phagocytes Microglia
these cells extend through brain tissue, nourish neurons and help form the blood barrier Astrocytes
these cells form the myelin sheath around nerves in the PNS Schwann Cells
this exist throughout the brain. it allows small molecules (like oxygen, carbon dioxide and water) to diffuse across the brain but blocks larger molecules from entering Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB)
these neurons detect stimuli, such as touch, pressure, heat, cold, or chemicals, and then transmit information about the stimuli to the CNS Sensory (Afferent) Neurons
these are found only in the CNS, they connect the incoming sensory pathways with outgoing motor pathways Interneurons
these Neurons relay messages from the brain to the muscle or gland cells Motor (efferent) Neurons
these neurons, have one axon and multiple dendrites Multipolar Neurons
These neurons, have two processes: an axon and a dendrite with the cell body in between the two processes Bipolar Neurons
these neurons only have one process, an axon that extends form the cell body before branching in a T shape Unipolar Neurons
this part of the cell is the control center of the neuron and contains the nucleus Cell Body
this is also called the soma Cell Body
on the neuron, these look like the bare branches of a tree, they receive signals from other neurons and conduct the information to the cell body Dendrites
this part of the neuron, carries nerve signals away from the cell body and is longer then dendrites and contains a few branches Axon
the axons of many (not all)neurons are encased in a Myelin Sheath
gaps in the myelin sheath are called Nodes Of Ranvier
the axon branches are called Axon terminals
at the end of axon terminals are the Synaptic knobs
this is essential for an injured nerve to regenerate Neurilemma
ions with opposite electrical charges are separated by a membrane, the potential exists for them to move toward one another is called Membrane Potential
An excess of positive ions in one side of the membrane and an excess of negative ions on the other side is called Polarized
the state of being inactive and polarized is called Resting potential
as a membrane becomes more positive its said to be Depolarized
if the neuron has become active as it conducts an impulse along the axon, this process is called Action potential
although the membrane is polarized, the neuron wont respond to a new stimulus as long as the Na+ and K+ are on the wrong sides of the membrane. this us known as the Refractory Pump
when impulses "Leap" from node to node. this type of signal is called Saltatory Conduction
space between the junction of two neurons in a neural pathway is called Synapse
extend from the end of the spinal cord is a bundle of nerve roots called the Cauda Equina
nerve tissue containing mostly neurons and interneurons Gray matter
nervous tissue containing bundles of axons that carry impulses from one part of the nervous system to another White Matter
a small space that lies between the outer covering of the spinal cord and the vertebrae Epidural Space
thus carries cerebrospinal fluid through the spinal cord the central canal
this nerve contains fibers that carry sensory information into the spinal cord Dorsal (Posterior) Nerve root
cell bodies of the dorsal neurons are clustered in a knot-like structure called a Ganglion
this a single nerve resulting form the fusion of the dorsal and ventral nerve roots Spinal Nerve
sensory and motor fibers that transmit impulses in two direction is called a Mixed Nerve
fibers in this area exit form the ventral horn and to carry motor information out of the spinal cord Ventral (anterior) Nerve root
the transparent membrane that clings to the outer surface of the brain and the spinal cord. it also contains blood vessels Pia mater
this space lies between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid Subarachnoid space
a delicate layer on the spine that resembles a cobweb Arachnoid Mater
the tough layer on the spine is called the Dura mater
this tract relays sensations of deep pressure and vibration as well as those needed to create awareness of the body's position Dorsal Column
this tract is responsible for proprioception Spinocerebellar
this tract relays sensations of temperature, pressure, pain and touch Spinothalamic tract
these tracts are also called the pyramidal tracts Conticospinal tracts
these tracts are responsible for fine movements of the hands, fingers, feet, and toes on the opposite side of the body Corticospinal tracts
these tracts are a group of tracts associated with balance and muscle tone Extrapyramidal Tracts
this consists of many nerve axons encased by connective tissue Nerve
nerve fibers are gathered together in bundles called Fascicles
nerve that contain both sensory and motor fiber are called Mixed Nerves
nerves that only contain sensory afferent fibers are called Sensory Nerves
nerves that only contain motor efferent fibers are called Motor Nerves
this part of the spine contains nerves that supply the muscles and skin of the neck, top of the shoulders, and part of the head The Cervical Plexus
a nerve that simulates that diaphragm for breathing Phrenic Nerve
the plexus that innervates the lower part of the shoulders and the arm Brachial Plexus
the plexus that is derived from the fibers of the first four lumbar vertebrae and supplies the tight and keg Lumbar Plexus
the key nerve in the lumbar plexus is the Femoral Nerve
The plexus that is formed from fibers from nerves L4, L5 and S1 through S4. is called the Sacral Plexus
this is the largest nerve in the body is called the Sciatic Nerve
each spinal nerve innervates a specific area of the skin. these areas are called Dermatomes
the largest portion of the brain is called the Cerebrum
the surface of the brain is marked by thick ridges called Gyri
the shallow groves on the brain are called Sulci
Deep Sulci on the brain are called Fissures
this sits between the cerebrum and the midbrain Diencephalon
this is the second largest region of the brain Cerebellum
this leads from the brain to the rest of the body The Brainstem
a deep groove that divides the cerebrum into right and left cerebral hemispheres are called Longitudinal Fissures
A thick bundle of nerves that runs along the bottom of the longitudinal fissure is called the Corpus Callosum
the gray matter that covers the cerebrum and cerebellum in a layer is called the Cortex
gray matter that exists in patches throughout the white matter is called Nuclei
these Arch though the cerebral hemispheres: one in the right and on in the left hemispheres Lateral Ventricles
Each lateral ventricles connects to a Third Ventricle
A clear colorless fluid that fills the ventricles and central canal is called Cerebrospinal Fluid
the CSF is formed blood by What plexus? Choroid Plexus
this part of the brainstem contains tracts that relay sensory and motor impulses the Midbrain
this part of the brainstem contains tracts that convey signals to and from different parts of the brain The Pons
this part of the brainstem attaches the brain to the spinal cord Medulla Oblongata
this part of the brainstem regulates heart rate Cardiac center
this part of the brainstem controls blood vessel diameter, which, in turn, affects blood pressure Vasomotor center
this part of the brainstem regulates breathing Respiratory center
Shape like who eggs sitting side by side, this resides on top of the brainstem The Thalamus
this lies just blow the thalamus and controls the automatic nervous system Hypothalamus
this lobe of the brain governs voluntary movements, emotions, social judgment, decision making, reasoning , and aggression Frontal Lobe
this part of the lobe is concerned in receiving and interpreting bodily sensations such as touch, temperature, pressure and pain Parietal Lobe
this lobe governs hearing, smell, learning, memory, emotional behavior, and visual recognition Temporal Lobe
the is lobe is concerned with analyzing and interpreting visual information Occipital Lobe
this plays a role in many different functions, including perception, motor control, self awareness, and cognitive functioning Insula
this makes up the bulk of the cerebrum and consists of myelinated fibers, called tracts White matter
part of the limbic system it is charged with converting short-term memory into long-term memory Hippocampus
part of the limbic system that has two-almond shaped masses of neurons on either side of the thalamus. concerned with emotions and can recall emotions from the past Amygdala
this part of the brain determines with movements are required to perform a specific task Motor Association Area
this part of the brain sends impulse through the motor tracts in the brainstem and spinal cord Precentral Gyrus
this is the primary somatic sensory of the brain Postcentral Gyrus
the cortex that sends impulses to the muscles necessary to pronounce words Primary motor Cortex
this plans muscle movements required of the larynx, tongue, cheeks, and lip to form words Broca's Area
this formulates the words into phrases that comply with learned grammatical rules Wernicke's Area
written word stimulates this Primary visual cortex
this translates the written words into a form that can be spoken Angular Gyrus
this area interprets the sense of smell olfactory association area
this area gives us the ability to recognize familiar sounds Auditory Association Area
this part is responsible for hearing Primary Auiditory complex
this handles the interpretation and sensation of taste primary gustatory complex
this area interprets the information acquired through the primary visual cortex, it allow us to recognize familiar objects Visual association area
this is responsible for sight Primary Visual Cortex
this is the subdivision of the nervous system responsible for regulating the activities that maintain homeostasis Automatic Nervous System (ANS)
ANS is also called the Visceral Motor System
the ANS of two divisions: this division is referred to as "fight or flight" Sympathetic
this division is Referred to as "rest and Digest" Parasympathetic
Created by: Leci81
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