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M6 13-005

Exam 12: Peds Skin Disordes

Skin Lesions: Causes Contact with injurious agents such as toxic chemicals. Hereditary factors. External factors such as allergens. Systemic diseases such as measles and lupus erythematosus.
Why is newborn skin more sensitive? Skin of younger children: infant's epidermis is thinner and blisters easily, absorbs much more quickly and is more prone to infections.
Dermatitis Inflammation of the skin.
Common Skin Symptoms include Pruritis that varies in intensity is the most common. Pain or tenderness. Burning or stinging. Anesthesia. Hyperesthesia. Hypesthesia or Hypoesthesia. Parasthesia.
Anesthesia Alterations in sensation.
Hyperesthesia Excessive Sensitiveness.
Hypesthesia or Hypoesthesia. Decreased Sensation.
Paresthesia Abnormal Sensation
It is important when interviewing the child and parent ascertain when the lesion appeared, whether it occurred with ingestion of food or other substance and whether the condition was related to activity such as contact with chemicals.
Erythema a reddened area
Ecchymosis bruising
Petechiae pinpoint, tiny, and sharp circumscribed spots
Primary lesion skin changes produced by a causative factor
Secondary lesions changes that result from alteration in the primary lesions such as those caused by rubbing, scratching, medication or involution and healing.
Distribution pattern The pattern in which lesions are distributed over the body, whether local or generalized, and the specific areas associated with the lesions
Configuration and arrangement The size, shape, and arrangement of a lesion or groups of lesions (e.g. discrete, clustered, diffuse, or confluent)
Wounds: Acute those which heal within 2 or 3 weeks.
Wounds: Chronic those that do not heal in the expected time frame or the wound develops complications
Wound Classifications Acute. Chronic. Surgical. Non-Surgical. Burns.
Types of burns Superficial. Partial-thickness. Full-thickness.
Process of wound healing (Phases) Hemostasis Phase. Inflammation Phase. Proliferative Phase. Remodeling (Maturation) phase.
Hemostasis Phase – platelets act to seal off the damaged blood vessels and to form a stable clot.
Inflammation Phase – presents a clinical picture involving erythema, swelling and warmth, often associated with pain at the site.
Proliferative Phase (includes granulation and contracture) – lasts from 4-21 days in acute wounds depending on the would size.
Remodeling (Maturation) Phase occurs in the dermis as fibroblasts increase the tissue tensile strength. The wound edges a brought closer together and a mature scar is formed.
Factors that influence wound healing Wound care management. Factors that delay healing (use of antiseptics)
Aim of Treatment (1)Prevent further damage (2)Eliminate the cause (3)Prevent Complications (4)Provide relief from discomfort
Topical Therapy is aimed to (a) Treat the disorder (b) Reduce itching (c) Decrease external stimuli – (d) Apply external heat or cold – lukewarm, tepid, or cool applications offer the greatest relief
Systemic drugs often used as an adjunct to topical therapy include corticosteroids, antibiotics and antifungal agents.
Created by: jtzuetrong