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OSHA Guidelines


OSHA - What does this stand for? Occupational Safety and Health Administration's.
OSET - What does this stand for? Organisation of Societies for Electrophysiological Technology.
OSHA - Bloodborne Pathogens Final Rule: Required healthcare workers to follow specific practices such as wearing gowns and protective apparel under specified circumstances to reduce the risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
OSHA - Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act: The Final Rule was revised in 2001 to conform to this.
OSHA - Exposure Control Plans: The 2001 Final Rule revision reflects how employers implement new developments in control technology; requires employers to get input from employees involved in pt care, and requires employers to maintain a log of injuries from contaminated sharps.
OSHA - What are some of the bloodborne pathogens? Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.
OSHA - Infectious Waste Definition: Solid waste or mass that may contain pathogens and, if contact with a susceptible host occurs, could result in transmission of an infectious disease.
OSHA - Infectious Waste Examples: Liquid or semi liquid blood or infectious materials, Contaminated items that would release infectious materials, Items that are caked with dried blood or potentially infectious materials, Contaminated sharps, Pathological and microbial wastes.
OSHA - Disposal: Infectious waste must be handled separately from usual trash and treated prior to final disposal.
OSHA - Hand Hygiene: The single most important means of preventing the spread of infection. Wearing gloves does not replace the need for this.
OSHA - Proper Hand Hygiene Technique for alcohol-based hand rub: Apply the product to the palm of one hand and rub hands together, covering all surfaces of the hands and fingers, until the hands are dry.
OSHA - Proper Hand Hygiene Technique for washing hands with soap and water: Wet hands first, apply product to the hands and rub together for at least 15 s. Rinse, dry thoroughly with a disposable towel. Use the towel to turn off the faucet. Avoid using hot water because repeated exposure may increase dermatitis.
OSHA - Handwashing Facilities: Must be provided and when not feasible, the employer must provide either an appropriate antiseptic hand cleanser in conjunction with clean cloth/paper towels or antiseptic towelettes.
OSHA - Artificial Fingernails: Recommends not be to be worn by those who have contact with high-risk patients (e.g., pts in ICUs, ORs) due to confirmed association with outbreaks of gram-negative bacillus and candidal infections. Settings have banned this for all healthcare personnel.
OSHA - Cleaning: The removal of all visible dust, soil, and any other foreign material. Antiseptic soaps should not be used to clean inanimate objects. Gloves are recommended. Spot clean walls if splashes occur. Clean floors by wet mopping, wet or dry vacuuming.
OSHA - Disinfection: Involves the destruction of many or all infectious organisms on inanimate objects.
OSHA - The CDC recognizes four levels of disinfection: Sterilization, high-level disinfection, intermediate-level disinfection, and low-level disinfection.
OSHA - Sterilization: Required to destroy all microorganisms, including bacterial spores. This is necessary for critical items, which are those that enter tissue or vascular space (e.g., needles, implants, and surgical tools) or those through which blood flows.
OSHA - High-Level Disinfection: Appropriate to inactivate the HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and mycobacterium tuberculosis. Used for semi-critical items that contact mucous membranes or non-intact skin, such as respiratory and anesthesia equipment, as well as endoscopes.
OSHA - Intermediate-Level Disinfection: Inactivates M. tuberculosis, vegetative bacteria, most viruses and most fungi, but it does not necessarily kill bacterial spores. Appropriate for some semi-critical items such as hydrotherapy tanks and thermometers.
OSHA - Low-Level Disinfection: Can kill most bacteria, some viruses, and some fungi, but it cannot be relied on to kill resistant microorganisms. Used for noncritical items that have contact with intact skin, which serves as a barrier to most microorganisms.
OSHA - Selection of Disinfectants: The selection of disinfectants involves determination of the level of disinfection required, the impact of the disinfection process on the instruments or devices, the cost of the disinfection method or product, and occupational health or safety risks.
OSHA - Factors Affecting Disinfection: In order for disinfection to be effective, you need to closely follow product or procedure recommendations for proper use. Ex: Some products require wet contact for a certain period of time to achieve the desired level of disinfection.
OSHA - Determining Appropriate Disinfectant: Product information tells actions it has against microorganisms. Ex: If it is a sporicide, sterilant, tuberculocide, vimcide, fungicide, and/or disinfectant, you see it's effectiveness. Since bacterial spores are most resistant, it is usually high-level.
OSHA - Disinfectant Exposure: Use product instructions or 20 minutes at room temperature for high level disinfection; at least 10 minutes for intermediate level disinfection.
OSHA - Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl)/Bleach: Effective against a broad spectrum of microbes including gram positive negative bacteria as well as viruses. Can be used for high, intermediate, and low-level disinfection, inexpensive, fast acting, and offer low levels of toxicity and irritancy.
OSHA - Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl)/Bleach Precautions: A strong oxidizer that discolors and corrodes metals (especially copper, aluminum, brass, stainless steel, chrome,and silver). Do not soak contaminated sharps in sodium hypochlorite or other disinfectants before disposal or reprocessing.
OSHA - Gloves and Protective Barriers: Require personnel to wear gloves during electrode application and removal for all pt contacts, regardless of potential for contact with blood, body fluids, or microorganisms. This universal policy eliminates the need for the tech to make a judgment call.
OSHA - Electrodes and Syringe Tips: Single use, disposable items whenever possible. If reusable, reprocess only if the cost is less than to replace. Manufacturers state in catalogs and on package inserts: "Sterilization of multiple-use products is the sole responsibility of the user."
OSHA - Needle Electrode Recapping: Do not recap needle electrodes unless specific situations warrant. If you must recap, never use two-handed techniques. An effective method is placing needle cap into a piece of stiff foam attached to a nearby instrument. The foam holds the cap in place.
OSHA - Needle Electrodes: Do not allow needle electrodes to dangle from headboxes or placed on the bedside or tables. A designated puncture resistant container or tray should be used to collect and transport reusable needle electrodes. Have contaminated sharps container available.
OSHA - Electrolyte Products: Skin preparation agents, collodion, and electrolyte paste and gels are usually sold in multi-dose containers. To decrease the risk of cross-contamination, small amt should go into single use container.
OSHA - Syringe: May be used to insert the electrolyte paste or gel via a blunt tip. The syringe is a single use, disposable item and should be discarded after its use. Do not change only the tip and reuse the syringe with the electrolyte paste or gel on another patient.
OSHA - Surface Electrodes: Due to abrading techniques, whether a skin prep or blunted syringe tip, there is the potential to break the skin. Preferred disinfection is to use a product that provides intermediate- to high-level disinfection and use it routinely.
OSHA - Marking Pencils, Tape Measures, Electrode Wires, Toys, Pulse Oximeter Probes, etc.: Wipe with a low-level disinfectant after each use. Allow the items to air dry.
OSHA - Environment: Make sure each pt has clean linen. Any item that comes into contact with the pt or becomes soiled needs to be changed before use with the next pt. Computer keyboards must be disinfected daily, with Quatemary ammonium, which will not damage keys.
OSHA - Blood and Body Fluid Spills: Clean as quickly as possible. Wear gloves and use paper towel. Follow rules for disposal of infectious waste. Use appropriate disinfectant (use of an intermediate-level chemical germicides) and discard paper towels and gloves in the trash.
OSHA - Disinfection & Acetone: Acetone is not a cleaning or disinfecting agent. Sufficient quantities of frequently used equipment should be available to allow appropriate time for disinfecting b/t uses. Classify items as critical, semi-critical, or non-critical.
OSHA - Critical EEG Items: Needle electrodes (subdermal and EMG), Indwelling depth electrodes, EEG (subdural and epidural) electrodes, Spenoidal electrodes, Tympanic electrodes, Urethral electrodes, and other items that enter tissue or vascular spaces or that blood flows through.
OSHA - Semi-Critical Items: Surface electrodes, NP electrodes, Electroretinogram (ERG) electrodes, Electrode caps, Nasal/oral thermo couples, CPAP/BPAP masks and tubing (Hobby 2007), Electrodes and all items exposed to non-intact skin or blood and body fluids.
OSHA - Noncritical Items: Surface electrodes (no abrasives), Electrode cap, Tape measures, Calipers, Marking pencils, Hair clips, Combs, Simulator prongs, Temperature probes on the skin, Oximeter, Patient toys, Bed rails, Headbox and cables, Any that contact with intact skin.
OSHA - Recording in the Operating Room: Maintain a relatively sterile environment and follow policies and procedures that reduce the spread of infection to patients.
OSHA - Recording in the Nursery or Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Newborn infants are at increased risk for development of infection, and premature, low-birth weight infants are at greatest risk. EEG personnel must follow policies and procedures to reduce the spread of infection when recording in this unit.
OSHA - Lice: If in-patient, nursing should be alerted. Care should be taken to carefully clean all electrodes of END equipment as not to spread insects. If the patient is an outpatient, establish a policy to cancel the appt and reschedule after eliminated.
OSHA - CJD: Transmitted via corneal transplants, cadaveric human growth hormones, cadaveric dura mater grafts, cerebrospinal fluid, human pituitary extracts, and inadequately sterilized EEG electrodes and neuro surgical equipment. Not known if transmitted by blood.
OSHA - Inactivation of CJD: This prion is resistant to sterilization and disinfection by most of the physical and chemical methods in common use. Single use, disposable invasive items are strongly recommended. When reusable must be used, strictest form of decontamination tolerated.
OSHA - MSI: The Microbial Safety Index. Used to identify the probability that an item is contaminated.
OSHA - Sterilization Definition: Act or process, physical or chemical that destroys all forms of life, especially micro-organisms and spores.
OSHA - Spaulding Definition: Applying the principle of Standard Precautions. This method of Decontamination should be sufficient for all situations.
OSHA - Formite Definition: An inanimate object, which in itself is not harmful, but is able to harbor pathogenic micro-organisms and thus may serve as an agent or transmission of infection.
OSHA - Empiric Definition: Temporary precautions.
OSHA - Disinfection Definition: Eliminates nearly all recognized pathogenic micro-organisms, but not necessarily all microbial life (eg bacterial spores) on inanimate objects.
OSHA - Decontamination Definition: A pre-cleaning process to remove all visible signs of organic matter prior to sterilization or disinfection.
OSHA - Virulence Definition: The degree of pathogenicity of a micro-organism. IE: The competence of a micro-organism to produce pathologic effects.
OSHA - Nonviable Definition: The irreversible loss of the ability to propagate.
OSHA - Pasteurization Definition: Disinfection that uses hot water at temperatures below 100 degrees centigrade. It consists of washing, rinsing, and filtered drying. Not sporicidal.
OSHA - Sanitation Definition: Any process that causes a reduction (to safe level) of microbial populations on an inanimate object.
OSHA - Spore Definition: A reproductive cell that usually possesses a thick wall enabling it to withstand unfavorable environmental conditions. Requires prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Sterilization or Sporicide are only decontamination methods that will destroy this.
OSHA - Sterilization Definition: Completely destroys or eliminates all forms of microbial life including bacteria, viruses, spores, and fungi. Necessary when item is penetrating or entering sterile tissue. Achieved by EPA registered sporicide, steam, ethylene oxide, dry heat.
OSHA - Virucide Definition: Process or chemical that kills viruses.
OSHA - What is the difference b/t Cleaning, Disinfecting, and Sterilization? Removal of all visible dust, soil, and any other foreign material vs. Eliminating nearly all recognized pathogenic micro-organisms, but not necessarily all microbial life vs. Completely destroys or eliminates all forms of microbial life.
OSHA - What does EPA stand for? Environmental Protection Agency.
OSHA - What are the 2 methods of sterilization? 1. Heat: Thermal heat (moist heat in steam autoclave) and Dry heat (hot-air oven) 2. Chemical: Ethylene Oxidate (C2H4O) and liquid chemicals.
OSHA - What should employees wash contaminated linens and reusable protective clothing with if professional laundry services are not available? Hot water and household bleach.
OSHA - Sanitize: To clean or disinfect. To make more acceptable by removing unpleasant or offensive features. To make sanitary or hygienic, as by sterilizing to omit unpleasant details.
OSHA - What is the difference between sanitizing and disinfecting? The first reduces the number of microorganisms to a safe level. It doesn't need to eliminate 100% of all organisms. The second completely destroys all organisms on listed. Legally, must reduce pathogenic bacteria by 99.999% in less than 10 minutes.
Created by: kmburg5840
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