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Bones & Joints

Chapter 6-8 Anatomy & Physiology

Bones give the body what ? Shape/ Structure
the bones of the legs, pelvis and vertebral column give the body what? Support
Bones do what for internal organs? Protect
Bones store and release minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, this is called Electrolyte Balance
Bone marrow produces ? Blood cells
Bones absorbs and releases alkaline salts to help maintain a stable pH, this process is called Acid-base balance
Bones that a very long axis and are longer then they are wide are called Long Bones
The femur of the thigh and the humerus of the arm are examples of what kind of bones? Long Bones
these bones work like levers to move limbs Long Bones
Bones that are as Broad as they are long is called Short Bones
these bones tend to be cubed shaped Short Bones
Carpal Bones and tarsal bones are examples of what kind of bones Short Bones
Bones that are Thin, flat, and often curved to protect organs are called Flat Bones
Some of the bones of the skull, the ribs, and the sternum are examples of what kind of bone? Flat Bones
Bone that are often clustered in groups, these Bones cone in various sizes and shapes are called Irregular Bones
the vertebrae and the facial bones are examples of what kind of bones? Irregular Bones
Small Bones that embedded in the tendons are called Sesamoid Bones
the kneecap is an example of what kind of bone? Sesamoid Bones
the head of each long bone is the Epiphysis
the central shaft like portion of the bone is called the Diaphysis
covering the epiphysis is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage called Articular Cartilage
The central hollow portion on the bone is called the Medullary cavity
the inside of the medullary cavity is lined with a thin epithelial membrane called the Endosteum
in children, the medullary cavity is filled with blood cell producing ___________ Red bone Marrow
in adults, most red marrow had turned to _________, which is rich in fat Yellow Bone Marrow
a dense fibrous membrane that covers the diaphysis is called the Periosteum
these bone cells helps form bone by secreting substances that comprise the bone's matrix Osteoblasts
these bone cells dissolve unwanted or unhealthy bone Osteoclasts
these bone cells are mature osteoblasts that have become entrapped in the hardened bone matrix Osteocytes
the study of bone is called Osteology
Collagen fibers in the matrix make bone highly resistant to stretching forces, this is called Tensile Strength
Calcium salts allow bones to resist strong squeezing forces, this is called Compressional strength
Bone that lacks the ability to endure twisting is called Torsional Strength
Bone tissue is called Osseous Tissue
porous bone or bone with air pockets is called Spongy Bone
this osseous tissue is found in the ends of long bones and in the middle of most other bones, but is always surrounded by more durable compact bone Spongy Bone
this osseous tissue is dense and solid Compact Bone
in compact bone, layers of matrix are arranged in concentric, onion like rings called Lamellae
The central canal that the lamellae surround is called Haversian/ osteonic canal
tiny gapes between ring of the lamellae that contain osteocytes are called Lacunae
Microscopic passageways that connect the lamellae to each other called Canaliculi
transverse passageways that connect the haversian canals is called Volkmann Canals
when a babies skeleton evolves from cartilage to bone, this process is called Ossification
a process that begins when groups of stem cells in tissue differentiate into osteoblasts is called Intramembranous Ossification
Clusters of osteoblast that deposit matrix material and collagen is called the Centers of Ossification
parts of a newborns skull that consists of fibrous connective tissue that is know as the "soft spot" is called Fontanels
process in the fetus whereby cartilaginous skeleton transforms into bone Endochondral Ossification
a layer of hyaline cartilage at the end of each bone is called the Epiphyseal Plate
Reshaping or reconstructing a part of bone Remodeling
the destruction of old bone is called Resorption
A brake in a bone is called a Fracture
when broken bones are manipulated into their original position without surgery is called Closed Reduction
when surgery is needed to reposition a broken bone this is called Open Reduction
the skeleton that forms the central supporting axis of the body is called Axial Skeleton
Bones making up the limbs, pelvis, and shoulder areas is called Appendicular Skeleton
the bony structure housing the brain is called the Cranium
forms the rear of the skull Occipital Bone
forms the sides of the cranium and part of the cranial floor Temporal Bones
the opening in the bone for the ear is called External Auditory Meatus
The prominent lump behind the ear is called Mastoid Process
the check bone is called Zygomatic Arch
an attachment point for several neck muscles Styloid Process
Forms a key part of the cranial floor as well as the floor and side walls of the orbits Sphenoid Bone
Contributes to the walls of the orbits, the roof and walls of the nasal cavity, and the nasal septum Ethmoid bone
the joint between the parietal bones and the frontal bone is called Coronal Suture
the line of articulation between the parietal bones and the occipital bone Lambdoidal Suture
the suture that runs along the top edge of the temporal bone is called Squamous suture
the joint between the right and left parietal bones is called Sagittal suture
the bones of the skull join together at immovable joints called Sutures
the skull contains a number of holes that allow for passage of nerves and blood called Foramina
the large opening in the base of the skull that allows the spinal cord to pass through as it connects to the brain steam is called the Foramen Magnum
the bones that meet to form the upper jaw is called the Maxillae
these bone shape the cheeks and form the outer edge of the orbit Zygomatic Bones
the largest and strongest bone of the face is called the Mandible
your lower jaw is called the Mandible
these are paper thin bone that form the part of the side wall of the orbit Lacrimal Bones
these rectangular bones form the bridge of the nose Nasal Bones
these bones contribute to the nasal cavity Inferior nasal conchae
this small bone forms the inferior half of the nasal septum Vomer
these bones form the posterior portion of the hard palate, part of the wall of the nasal cavity and part of the floor of the orbit Palatine Bones
the bone known as the "Hammer" in the middle ear Malleus
The bone in the middle eat known as the "Anvil" Incus
The bone in the middle ear known as the "Stirrup" Stapes
The three bones in the middle ear are called the Auditory Ossicles
the "U" shaped bone that sits between the chin and the larynx Hyoid Bone
an opening in the spin that allows passage for the spinal cord is called the Vertebral Foramen
the weight bearing portion of the vertebra is called the Body
the bumps you feel when you fun your hand along your spin, those are called Spinous process
between each vertebra lays a Intervertebral Disc
in the spine there is a gel-like core called the Nucleus Pulposus
in the spine there is a ring of tough fibrocartilage called the Annulus fibrosus
C1 of the vertebrae is known as the Atlas
C2 of the vertebrae is known as the Axis
C2 has a projection that allow the head to swivel from side to side called the Dens/ Odontoid process
this holds the dens in place Transverse ligament
the very top of the sternum that is shaped like a medallion is called the Manubrium
this lies at the top of the manubrium between the two clavicles Suprasternal Notch
the middle part of the sternum, which is the largest portion is called the Body
the important landmark for CPR on the sternum is called the Xiphoid process
the lower edges of the thoracic cage are called the costal margins
the costal margins meet at the xiphoid process forming the Costal Angle
ribs 1 to 7 are called True Ribs
true ribs attach to the sternum by a strip of hyaline cartilage called Costal Cartilage
Ribs 8-9 are called False Ribs
ribs 11 and 12 do not attach to any part of the thoracic cage making them known as Floating Ribs
A slightly S shaped bone that articulates with the sternum and the scapula and helps support the shoulder is called the Clavicle
your shoulder blades are called Scapula
the only point where the arm and the scapula attach to the rest of the Skelton, this is called the Acromion process
this finger like process provides a point of attachment for some of the muscles of the arm Coracoid Process
this shallow socket articulates with the head of the humerus Glenoid Cavity
the enlarged end of the humerus that is covered in cartilage is called the head
this is a depression on the posterior side of the humerus Olecranon Fossa
this is the boney point of the elbow Olecranon Process
the boney bumps that can be felt at the wrist is called the Styloid processes of the radius and ulna
this bone in the forearm is located on the same side of the thumb Radius
the distinctive disc that rotates in the humerus when the palm is turned forward and back Proximal Head
where the biceps muscle attaches to the bone is called the Radial Tuberosity
in the forearm the bone that is the longest is called the Ulna
fingers are formed by bones called Phalanges
these bones form the palm of the hand Metacarpal Bones
these bones are arranged in two rows of four and form the wrist Carpal Bones
on the pelvic bone, this is the large, flaring section you can feel under your skin Ilium
on the pelvic bone, this is the lower posterior portion Ischium
on the pelvic bone, this is the most anterior portion that joins with the other pubis at the symphysis pubis Pubis
Posteriorly, each ox coxae articulates with the sacrum at the Sacroiliac Joint
the upper, outer edge of the ilium is called the Iliac Crest
point through which the sciatic nerve passes on it path to the back of the thigh Grater Sciatic Notch
A depression that houses the head of the femur to form the "hip socket" Acetabulum
projection into the pelvic cavity Ischial Spine
this supports your body when you are sitting Ischial Tuberosity
the combination of the os coxae and sternum is know as the Pelvis
this extends between what's known as the pelvis brim True pelvis
the lower edge of the true pelvis is know as the Pelvic Outlet
this extends between the outer, flaring edges of the iliac bones False Pelvis
commonly known as the kneecap Patella
the long and slender bone that resides along side the tibia and helps stabilize the ankle, is called the Fibula
bone in the lower leg that bears all the weight is called the tibia
the distal end of the fibula forms the Lateral Malleolus
this serves as the attachment point for thigh muscles Tibial tuberosity
the boney knob you can palpate on your inner ankle is the Medial Malleolus
these form the toes Phalanges
the greatest toe is called the Hallux
these bones form the middle portion of your foot Metatarsals
these bones comprise the ankle Tarsal Bones
these bones make up the second row of tarsal bones Cuneiforms
The second largest tarsal bone is the Talus
The largest tarsal bone is called the Calcaneus
the branch of science that studies joint structure, function and dysfunction is called Arthrology
when collagen fibers form one bone penetrate the adjacent bone, anchoring the bones in place. this is called Fibrous Joints
Fibrous Joints is also Known as Synarthroses
when two bones are joined together by cartilage they are called Cartilaginous Joints
joints that are slightly movable are called Amphiarthroses
the two pubic portions of the os coxae are jointed by a pad of cartilage called a Symphysis
joints that are freely movable are called Synovial Joints
Synovial Joints are also know as Diarthroses
Extending form the periosteum of each of the articulating bones is a sheet of connective tissue that encloses the joint cavity is the Joint Capsule
thus moist, slippery membrane lines the inside of the joint capsule, where it secretes synovial fluid Synovial Membrane
this is the small space between the bones that allows for freedom of movement Joint Cavity
a thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers bone surfaces is called Articular Cartilage
though cords of connective tissue the helps bind the bones more firmly together is called Ligaments
some joints like the knee, shoulder and elbow contain small sacs filled with synovial fluid called Bursa
This type of joint allows the bones to rotate or pivot Pivot Joint
this joint has a ball shaped head that allows joint to move and is the widest range of motion of all joints Ball-and-Socket Joint
just like the hinge on a door, these joints allow back and forth movements Hinge Joint
a joint that's shaped like a saddle and concaved in each direction is called a saddle joint
in this joint, the two bone surfaces side over each other. Gliding Joint
this joint is oval shaped Condyloid Joint
involves bending a joint so far as to decrease the angle of the joint is called Flexion
involve straitening a joint, increasing the angle between the bones Extension
the extreme extension of a joint beyond it normally straight position Hyperextension
involves moving the toes upward Dorsiflexion
involves move the toes downward Plantar flexion
the movement of a body part AWAY from the midline of the body is called Abduction
the movement of a body part TOWARDS the midline of the body is called Adduction
when a bone spins toward the body's midline it called Internal Rotation
when a bone spins AWAY form the body's mid line it called External Rotation
a movement that turns the palm upward is called Supination
A movement that turns the palm Downward is called Pronation
a foot movement that turns the sole medially, toward the other foot is called Inversion
a foot movement that turns the sold laterally, away from the other foot is called Eversion
when you moves a part forward its called Protraction
when you move a part Backward its called Retraction
Created by: Leci81
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