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Chapter 4 Anatomy and Physiology

A group of similar cells that perform the a common function is called Tissues
the outermost layer of tissue is called the Ectoderm
the middle layer of tissue is called the Mesoderm
this inner layer of tissue is called the Endoderm
Each layer gives rise to different types of tissues, this is a process called Differentiation
Cells that can differentiate into many different types of cells, Such as liver cells, skin cells, or blood cells. Stem Cells
this Layer, Gives rise to epidermis and nervous system Ectoderm
This Layer, produces mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, thyroid gland, and secretory parts of the pancreas Endoderm
This Layer, Gives rise to connective and ,muscle tissue Mesoderm
Epithelial Tissue is also called Epithelium
This tissue, is a continuous sheet of tightly packed cells Epithelial Tissue
This tissue, covers the Body's surface Epithelial Tissue
This tissue, Lines the body cavities and many of the organs Epithelial Tissue
Cells that are "flat" and "Plate-like" are called Squamous
Cells that are Cube-shaped are Cuboidal
these cells are higher then they are wide, column-shaped cells are called Columnar
If a Layer is "simple" it means One Layer
If a Layer is "Stratified" it means Many Layers
Modified cells containing secretory vesicles that produce large quantities of mucus Goblet Cells
These Glands, secrete their products (such as tears, sweat, or gastric juices) into ducts Exocrine
These Glands are offen called ductless Endocrine
These glands secrete their products, Called hormones, directly into the blood Endocrine
if a tissue consists of a single layer of flat, scale like cells its called Simple Squamous Epithelium
this is tissue layer allows for ready diffusion or filtration because of its thinness Simple Squamous Epithelium
If a tissue consists of a single layer of cube like cells its called Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
this tissue layer secretes and absorbs Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
If tissue layer consists of a single layer of columnar cells it is called Simple Columnar Epithelium
This tissue layer secretes mucus by goblet cells Simple Columnar Epithelium
if a tissue consists of a single layer of IRREGULARLY shaped columnar cells its called Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
if a tissue layer consists of multiple layers or squamous cells its called stratified Squamous Epithelium
the most widespread, and the most varied, of all tissues is called Connective Tissue
What type of connective tissue is found in Ligaments? Dense Fibrous
What type of connective tissue is found in fat? Adipose
What type of connective tissue is found in Vertebral discs? Cartilage
what type of connective tissue is found in the framework of the spleen? Reticular
What type if connective tissue is found under epithelia? Areolar
a key component of connective tissue that allows it to be so diverse is Extracellular Matrix
these fibers are strong and flexible but not resist stretching Collagenous
these fibers are the most abundant of fibers Collagenous
these fibers occur in networks and support small structures such as capillaries and nerve fibers Reticular
these fibers are made of protein called elastin Elastic
these fibers can stretch and recoil like a rubber band Elastic
this tissue consists of collagen and elastin fibers in a soft, gel-like matrix Areolar Tissue
this tissue connects many adjacent structures in the body Areolar Tissue
this tissue Surrounds blood vessels, nerves, the esophagus, and the trachea Areolar Tissue
This tissue is Dominated by cells Adipose Tissue
this tissue Forms supporting, protective pads around the kidneys and various other structures Adipose Tissue
This tissue acts as a storage depot for excess food Adipose Tissue
This tissue helps insulate the body to conserve body heat Adipose Tissue
This tissue consists of a loose network of reticular fibers and cells Reticular Tissue
this tissue forms the framework of the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow Reticular Tissue
Cord-like structures charged with attaching muscles to bones is called Tendons
Attaching bone to bone is called Ligaments
Dense connective tissue that forms bands or sheets that bind together organs and muscles are called Fascia
the tissue that forms a protective capsule or sheath around the kidneys, spleen and nerves is called Fascia
Cartilage is composed of cells called Chondrocytes
This type of cartilage is found in the ends of movable joints, at the point where the ribs attach to the breast bone, and the supportive rings around the trachea Hyaline Cartilage
This type of cartilage provides flexible support to the external ear and the epiglottis Elastic Cartilage
This type of cartilage Forms the discs between the vertebrae and the knee joints Fibrocartilage
Osseous tissue is another word for Bone
Bone is composed of bone cells called Osteocytes
A liquid matrix that surrounds blood cells is called Plasma
The units that conduct nervous impulses are called Neurons
These protect and assist neurons Neuroglia
Each neuron has a large body, called a Soma
Extending form the soma are multiple, short processes called Dendrites
The neuron contains a single, long nerve fiber called the Axon
Skeletal muscle consists of long, thin cells called Muscle fibers
skeletal muscle may also be called Striated or Voluntary muscle
These junctions allow electrical impulses to spread rapidly from cell to cell Intercalated discs
this occurs when damaged tissue cells are replaced with the same type of cells, resulting in functional new tissue Regeneration
this occurs when the damaged tissue is replaced with scar tissue, which is composed mainly of collagen Fibrosis
Thin sheets of tissue that fulfill many crucial functions in the body is called Membranes
Mucous membranes secrete Mucus
A water solution that coast and protects the cells of the membrane Mucus
this lines the spaces between bones, where they secrete synovial fluid to prevent friction during movement Synovial Membranes
Created by: Leci81



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