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Judicial Branch

Chapter 11 and 12 vocab

QuestionAnswer
Writ of certiorari request that the Supreme Court hear an appeal of a lower court’s decision
Briefs legal arguments made in writing
Concurring opinion Disapproves of most of an opinion’s grounds, but approves of its majority outcome
jurisdiction Constitutional authority to interpret and administer law
docket Court’s schedule of cases to be heard
amicus curiae briefs Papers filed with the Court by groups that are affected but are not parties involved
district courts Trial courts of the federal system
loose constructionists believe political & social conditions be considered when interpretingConstitution
appellate jurisdiction Power to review lower court’s decisions
courts of appeals Courts that hear appeals of U.S. district court cases
majority opinion reflects the beliefs of most court justice
precedents principles that guide judges in making decisions
Strict constructionists interpretation of laws & Constitution be limited to the words documents contain
original a court’s authority to hear a case’s initial trial
judicial activism people who argue the to protect the rights of minorities and the powerless
lower courts federal court system consists of the Supreme Court and this
grounds legal reasons that are the basis for a court’s decision
Constitution the basis for the federal courts’ jurisdiction
Marbury v. Madison the principle of judicial review was established by this Supreme Court case
Judicial restraint the restricted use of judicial power
felonies robbery, manslaughter, and other serious crimes
misdemeanors petty larceny and other minor crimes
voir dire process during which attorneys on both sides of a court case question every potentioal juror
common law body of law based on decisions made in earlier court cases
indictment formal accusations made against a suspected criminal
sequester keep a jury in isolation during a trial
defendant party that a suit is filed against
arraignment official proceeding at which the accused is informed about charges against him or her
bail if paid, enables accused persons to be temporarily freed from jail
peremptory challenge allows an attorney to reject a juror without explaining why
Capital punishment another term for the death penalty
Constitutional interpretation the process of making decisions on the meaning of the Constitution
statutory laws passed by local, state, and federal lawmaking bodies make up
bonds held as security to discourage accused people from leaving a court’s jurisdiction
trial petit jury, includes citizens who are chosen to hear a case
plaintiff the party that files a lawsuit is called
statutory interpretation the process by which courts interpret laws passed by legislatures
grand jury decides whether the government has sufficient evidence to try accused people
information a written affidavit in which a state prosecutor declares whether there is enough evidence to try a case
parole release from prison before a sentence is completed
Created by: shupeer