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Enlightenment Thinke

St Marys Annapolis 7th Grade sicial studies

TermDefinition
John Locke English thinker, said Every man has 3 natural rights
Voltaire French thinker, wanted Separation of Church and State, Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Speech
Montesquieu French thinker, Government must have a separation of powers (3 branches –legislative, executive, judicial) to ensure freedom and liberty. Checks and balances in government
Thomas Hobbes Said Society is chaos, “Men, are by nature, selfish and competitive,” and Give all power to absolute government to control evil behaviors
Adam Smith English thinker, said Laissez-faire – “let it be”, Capitalism- free market economy The First Estate of the French Revolution
The First Estate consisted of less than 1% of the population.
The Second Estate of the French revolution consisted of the nobility of France, including members of the royal family, except for the King.
The Second Estate consisted of less than 2% of the population.
The Third Estate of the French Revolution was made up of everyone else, from peasant farmers to the bourgeoisie – the wealthy business class.
The Third Estates consisted of 97% of the population.
The nobility required the Third Estates to pay What the taille
The Taille a tax that generally equaled 35%-40% of one’s income
Priests required to pay what in taxes a tithe
a tithe a 10% tax on all income for each parishioner
3 Outcomes of the Berlin Conference i. Any foreign power must announce their intent to colonize territory in Africa ii. Had to maintain control in order to make claim legitimate iii. Any treaty with Africa King/tribal leader was valid
Estates General a meeting of representatives from all three Estates to advise the King on what course of action to take
National Assembly a new legislative body designed to work on behalf of the common people
August 1789, the National Assembly formally approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man, declaring men equal under the law
Revolutionary leaders adopted the expression “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” as their slogan
Why do Divisions develop within revolution Divided about what to do about the King
Radicals opposed the idea of a monarchy and supported broad changes in the government
Moderates Wanted to see the King’s power limited, but not to do away with the monarchy as the radicals suggested
Conservatives Supported a limited monarchy with few changes in the structure of the government
The Jacobins were a radical, political club that debated current political issues and who organized and planned events
The Jacobin Club had two very famous members Marat and Robepierre
Marat was the leading radical journalist who supported the execution of any enemy of the Revolution
Robespierre was the leading Jacobin and greatest supporter of the Revolution and the Third Estates. Reign of Terror
The guillotine The Terror had a special tool used to implement its fear and punishment
Napoleon’s 6 reform efforts Education, Government, Napoleonic Code, Religion, Infrastructure
Napoleonic Code a set of clear laws applicable to all members of French society
The Concordat Napoleon signed an agreement with the Pope returning all land and rights to the Church
Napoleon Infrastructure Built Roads Dams canals for military purposes
Congress of Vienna tried to restore the balance in Europe to pre-Napoleon times By restoring European monarchs and nobility to their proper place Greece earned their independence in
Napoleon’s nephew, Louis-Napoleon was elected president of the first French Republic in 1848
Czar Alexander II freed all serfs in Russia when in 1861, officially ending feudalism in Europe Italy earned their independence when
Victor Emmanuel II was kingof Italy in 1870
Otto von Bismarck unified Germany when 1871
King Wilhelm I ruled unified Germany in 1871
Toussaint L’Overture started revolt in Haiti – earned independence in 1804 – first Latin American colony to earn independence
Mexico earned independence When 1821
Father Miguel Hidalgo who issued the “Grito de Dolores” in 1821 when mexico declared independence
Simon Bolivar led Peru, Argentina, Chile, and Venezuela to independence in 1824
Why did European powers began to colonize Africa African has a vast wealth of raw materials
David Livingstone explored Africa on behalf of King Leopold II of Belgium
Forces behind Imperialism in Africa 1.Access to abundant raw materials 2. European countries could export products to new markets 3. Gaining colonies is a sign of greatness (of the empire) 4. Racism
Berlin Conference meeting between European powers to decide how divide Africa in fair way
British East India Trading Company grew very powerful in what Country India
British East India Trading Company did 2 things 1. Set up imperial government 2. Had their own army – sepoys – Indian troops serving British army
Sepoys Indian troops serving British army
Battle of Plassey Defeated the Mughal Empire in 1857
Raj period of British rule in India from 1800s – 1947
Positive Effects of British rule 1. Britain built infrastructure – roads, canals, bridges 2. Opened schools and colleges across India
Negative Effects of British Rule 1. Indian businesses could not keep pace with British industry 2. Christian missionaries corrupted and weakened Indian religion 3. Indians hated blatant British racism
Sepoy Mutiny On May 10th, 1857, the sepoys started a rebellion against British rule
Imperialism The policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring colonies; when a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, and socially
Colonialism A form of Imperialism; Exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one; the use of the weaker country's resources to strengthen and enrich the stronger country
Scramble for Africa European countries quickly colonizing the lands of Africa for 1. Natural resources and 2. Economic Opportunity 3. Religion
Ethnocentrism The belief that one's own culture is superior to all others and is the standard by which all other cultures should be measured
. Missionary A person who goes to another country to do religious and social work; person sent by a church to spread it's religion among nonbelievers
Indirect Rule Keeping the local power structure (government) and making it a part of the colonial administration. Local leaders followed the rules of colonialism
Direct Rule Impose their rules and government on colony. No powers given to local people, and ruled by a governor
Capital Monetary resources
Depletion The use or consumption of a resource, especially a natural resource, faster than it is replenished
Exploitation taking advantage of
Genocide The systematic and planned extermination of an entire national, racial, political, or ethnic group
Cash crop a crop grown strictly for sale; a plant that is grown to be sold for money instead of personal use
Nationalism patriot feeling, feeling one country is superior to another
Mercantilism an economic system where the wealth of a nation depends on its possession of precious metals (bullionism)
Created by: FASnyder