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ANA 534 Oral Cavity

learning objective answers to oral cavity

What is the role of the suprahyoid muscles during swallowing? Why is this important functionally? The suprahyoid muscles elevate the larynx via its membranous connection (thyrohyoid membrane). Elevation of the larynx facilitates the closure of the laryngeal inlet by the epiglottis.
How is the soft palate elevated? Why is this important during swallowing? The soft palate is elevated by contraction of levator veli palatini and tensed by tensor veli palatini. Elevation of the soft palate closes the nasopharynx from the oropharynx so that food and liquid cannot enter nasal cavity.
What muscles depress the soft palate? Why is this important during swallowing? Palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus depress the soft palate. They help to narrow the oropharyngeal isthmus to prevent food in the oropharynx from re-entering the oral cavity.
What nerves carry the sensation of taste from the tongue? CN VII (facial nerve) supplies anterior 2/3; CN IX supplies posterior 1/3; CN X supplies the area surrounding the epiglottis.
When you burn the tip of your tongue, what nerve transmits the sensation of pain 
to the CNS? The lingual nerve of the mandibular division of CN V.
What extrinsic tongue muscle is responsible for protruding the tongue? Genioglossus.
What is the function of the intrinsic tongue musculature? They act to change the tongue’s shape.
Where does saliva from the submandibular gland empty into the oral cavity? The submandibular duct empties into the sublingual caruncule/papilla just lateral to the base of the lingual frenulum.
Where does the parotid duct open into the gingival vestibule? Opposite the second maxillary molar.
Deviation of the tongue to the right side indicates a hypoglossal nerve lesion on 
which side? Why? The lesion is on the right side. The tongue deviates to the side of the lesion due to the action of the unaffected contralateral genioglossus muscle.
What suprahyoid muscle lies superior to the mylohyoid? Geniohyoid.
What muscle attaches to the superior mental spine? To the inferior mental spine? Genioglossus; geniohyoid.
In the floor of the mouth, what structures pass lateral/superficial to the hyoglossus 
muscle? Is the lingual artery one of these structures? Is the glossopharyngeal 
nerve one of these structures? Lingual nerve, submandibular duct, hypoglossal nerve and
Describe the motor and sensory innervation of the hard and soft palate. CN XI via X - all palatal muscles except tensor veli palatini (V3). Sensory innervation of the hard palate is via greater palatine nerve (CN V2); sensory innervation of the soft palate is via lesser palatine nerve via the lesser palatine nerve (CN V2).
A lesion of chorda tympani in the infratemporal fossa prior to its union with the 
lingual nerve will result in what sensory deficits? Loss of taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. Pain, temperature and touch will remain intact.
What vessels provide blood to the palatal musculature? Descending palatine branch of the maxillary artery gives rise to a greater palatine artery (hard palate) and a lesser palatine artery (soft palate).
Which of the muscles associated with the tongue is NOT innervated by CN XII? Palatoglossus is a palatal muscle, innervated by CN XI via X.
Trace the parasympathetic pathway from brainstem to the sublingual gland. Pre parasympathetic origin superior salivatory nucleus, enter CNVII, petrous temporal bone, pass chorda tympani, infratemporal,. joins lingual n. Pre parasympathetic travel to submandibular ganglion, Post fibers rejoin the lingual n to sublingual gland.
What is the foramen cecum? the sulcus terminalis? The site for invagination of the thyroid gland from the dorsum of the tongue; the fusion of anterior 2/3 with posterior 1/3 of the tongue as they come from different embryological sources.
List the 4 types of lingual papillae. Which are the largest? the most numerous? 
the least well-developed? most keratinized? Filiform, fungiform, foliate, circumvallate. Largest = circumvallate. Most numerous = filiform. Least developed = foliate. Keratinized = filiform.
Created by: wiechartm