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Cells

Chapter 3 Anatomy & Physiology

QuestionAnswer
this Cell has long extensions allow these cells to quickly transmit electrical impulses from one part of the body to another Nerve Cells
this cell is Elongated, thread-like fibers can shorten to allow body parts to move. Muscle cells
this cell is a concave shape that allows these cells to bend and squeeze through tiny blood vessels Red Blood Cells
these cells have intracellular sacs that store and release substances, such as hormones, enzymes, mucus, and sweat Gland Cells
these cells can recognize and destroy foreign invaders (such as viruses, fungi, and bacteria) Immune Cells
the boundary of the cell is called Plasma Membrane
regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell Plasma Membrane
when only some substances can come through and other can not is called Selective Permeability
A double-Layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus is called Nuclear Envelope
These perforate the nuclear envelope Nuclear Pores
this regulates the passage of molecules into the nucleus as well as out of the nucleus. Nuclear Pores
thread-like structures composed of DNA and protein are called Chromatin
when a cell begins to divide, the chromatin coils tightly into short, rod-like structures called Chromosomes
the center of the nucleus is called the Nucleolus
the Cells protein-producing structures Ribosomes
a gel-like substance that fills the space between the plasma membrane and nucleus Cytoplasm
Packed into the cytoplasm are hundreds, or even thousands of "little organs" called Organelles
Extending thoughout the cytoplasm, from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, is a network of membranous canals and curving sacs called the Endoplasmic Reticulum
every cell contains thousands of granules of protein and RNA called Ribosomes
made of flattened membranous sacs stacked one on top of another is called Golgi Apparatus
receives proteins from the ER and prepares the packages from them for export to other parts of the body Golgi Apparatus
these lie perpendicular to each other just outside the nucleus Centrioles
membranous vesicles that form from pinched-off pieces of the Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes
these contain various enzymes that help brake down protein the cell doesn't need Lysosomes
Sausage-shaped organelles that function as the cells "powerhouse" Mitochondria
the inner membrane folds back and forth across its interior; these folds are called Cristae
the supporting frame of the cell Cytoskeleton
folds of the cell membrane that greatly increase the surface area of the cell Microvilli
hair-like processes along the surface of a cell Cilia
these help move the cell Flagella
mechanisms that move substances in and out of the cell Passive transport
involves the movement of particle from an area of HIGHER concentration to an area of LOWER concentration Diffusion
the point which no further diffusion occurs is called Equilibrium
when particles are EQUALY distributed Equilibrium
A difference in concentration of a substance from one point to another is called Concentration Gradient
A type of diffusion, that involves the diffusion of water down the concentration gradient thorough a selectivity permeable membrane Osmosis
Water pressure that develops in a solution as a result of osmosis is called Osmotic Pressure
a solution where the concentration of solutes is the same as it is in the cell is called isotonic
a solution where it contains a HIGHER concentration of solutes compared to the fluid within a cell Hypertonic
A solution where it contains a LOWER concentration of solutes compared to the fluid within a cell Hypotonic
process in which water and dissolved particles are forced across the membrane from an area of higher to lower hydrostatic pressure Filtration
Solutes move up the concentration gradient is called Active Transport
this crucial pump regulates the volume of fluid within cells, provides the electrical potential necessary for nervous system activity, and helps in heat production Sodium-potassium pump
the form of vesicular transport that brings substances into the cell Endocytosis
When a cell engulfs a solid particle and brings it into a cell Phagocytosis
when tiny vacuoles bring droplets of extracellular fluid containing dissolved substances into the cell Pinocytosis
this uses vesicles to release substances outside of the cell Exocytosis
particles move from high to low concentration with the help of a channel protein that's part of the plasma membrane Facilitated Diffusion
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid
the Largest and most complex of all molecules DNA
A large molecule made up of many smaller molecules joined together in a sequence that encodes the cell's genetic information is called Polymer
The Base "A" stands for Adenine
The Base "T" stands for Thymine
The Base "G" stands for Guanine
The base "C" stands for Cytosine
the time between mitotic phases is called Interphase
cells that leave the cycle and enter a period of rest in which they don't divide is called G-Zero
A key focus of a cells life cycle is called Mitosis
when the cell splits into two identical daughter cells Mitosis
the growth of organs and tissues in a developing child Mitosis
the repair of damaged tissues following a injury Mitosis
Chromatin Begins to coil and condense to form chromosomes happens in what phase? Prophase
some of the spindle fibers attach to one side of the chromosomes at the centromere. this happens in what phase? Metaphase
the chromosomes line up along the center of the cell. this happens in what phase? Metaphase
the centromeres divide, forming two chromosomes instead of a pair attached chromatids. this happens in what phase? Anaphase
Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin. happens in what phase? Telophase
Cytoplasm divides and cell membrane closes off is called Cytokinesis
Created by: Leci81