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clinical 1 ch 8

Principles of Infection Control

the state of being free from all pathogenic organisms asepsis
microorganisms that cause disease pathogens
a helpful and necessary balance of microorganisms that provide natural immunity against certain infections normal flora
what does a miccroorganism require to sustain life, grow, and develop? O2,pH,temperature,nutrients, water and a host to inhabit
people, equipment, food, water, animals, insects are examples of reservoir or source
indirect contact, direct contact, bloodborne, airborne, ingestion are examples of means of transmissions
non intact mucous membranes, reproductive,digestive and respiratory systems are examples of portal of entry to host
What are the most common infectious agents? bacteria,viruses,fungi,parasites,protozoa
infectious agent leaves the resevoir through a portal of exit
how the infectious agent travels through the portal of exit into a susceptible person means of tranmission
person that is capable of being infected susceptible host
the vapor generated from a cough or sneeze can travel up to three feet
the stages of the infectious disease process incubation;prodromal;acute;declining; convalesant
Also called the silent stage and ends with the first symptoms of being sick incubation stage
begins with the first onset of S&S of being sick, last 1-2 days prodromal stage
when the disease reachest its highest point of development, most severe S&S occur acute stage
S&S start to subside but infection is still present declining stage
S&S are gone, pathogen has left, return to normal state of health convalescent stage
treat all blood/body fluids as if they are infectious universal precautions
an example of a guideline for disease prevention and safety no direct patient contact with open wounds or sores
according to the CDC you must do what for 1-2 minutes initially then 15sec. before and after each patient contact wash hands
PPE incudes gloves;masks;gowns;labcoats;face sheilds;safety glasses/googles
washing and scrubbing equipment to remove blood, body fluids and tissue is called sanitization
process of using chemicals to kill microorganisms disinfection
process that destroys all forms of living organisms sterilization
sterilizing articles using steam under pressure autoclaving
common low level household disinfectants bleach and isopropyl alcohol
disinfectants don't always kill spores
practices used to reduce the number of micro organisms once they leave the body medical asepsis
this is not a substitute for hand washing wearing gloves
study of infectious diseases epidemiology
process by which all disposable invasive and medical items are destroyed by flame incineration
PPE stands for personal protective equipment
alcohol based hand sanitizer should contain what percent of alcohol to be affective? 60-90%
includes universal precautions but adds BSI, which requires the HCW to use additional PPE depending on the potential exposure to blood and OPIM standard precautions
added to standard precautions, designed to specifically address the transmission of a specific infection transmission precautions
CDC Centers for Disease Control
Elements of the infection cycle are infectious agent;reservoir or source; portal of exit;means of transmission;portal of entry; susceptible host
procedures and practices used to destroy all microorganisms from instruments and additional objects before they enter a person surgical asepsis
bodys ability to defend itself against pathogens and toxins immunity
this occurs when antibodies are passed from a mother to fetus natural passive immunity
occurs as a result of direct exposure to the antigen and the body builds its own protection natural active immunity
occurs as a result of being given either the antigen or antibody to stimulate an antibody reaction artificial immunity
vaccine that is a weakened form of the antigen live attenuated
vaccines that are inactivated toxins produced by pathogen toxoid vaccine
the bodies attempt to protect itself from microorganisms that enter the body and to heal and replace injured tissue inflammatory response
an infected person trasmits pathogens to another individual through physical contact direct contact
transmission that occurs through ingesting contaminated food or water;poor hand washing after coming in contact with contaminated items indirect contact
transmission that occurs when a pathogen is transmitted through the air airborne tranmission
occurs when an infected person coughs or sneezes droplet transmission
when a mother infects a child either in utero; breast feeding or during the birthing process vertical transmission
person becomes infected as a result of medical treatment; procedures; injections; surgeries latrogenic transmission
handwashing is and example of medical asepsis
Created by: clarevoyant1019
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