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muscle anatomy


the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus exciteability
the ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
muscles help to produce ____ essential for maintenance of normal body temperature heat
each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the ? epimysium
what is another connective tissue located outside the epimysium?it surrounds and seperates muscles. fascia
a muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi, which are surrounded by loose connective tissue called the ? perimysium
the fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called ? fibers
each muscle fiber is a single cylindrical cell containing several ? nuclei
each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the ? endomysium
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with ? myofibrils
a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other ? myofibrils
myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers ? actin and myosin myofilaments
thin myofilaments. they resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together...... actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments. they resemble bundles of minute golf clubs.... myosin myofilaments
actin and myosin myofilaments for highly ordered units called ? sarcomere
these are joined end to end to form the myofibril? sarcomere
the basic structural and functional unity of the muscle ? sarcomere
each sarcomere extends from one z line to another. each z line is an attachment site for ? actin
the arrangement of actin and myosin give a ________ appearance? banded
on each side of the z line is a light area called an I band, it consists of ? actin
the A band extends the length of the ? myosin
the _ ____ is the darker central region in each sarcomere a band
in the center of each sarcomere is another light area called the _ ____? h zone
the h zone consists of ? myosin
myosin mmyofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at a dark staining band called the _ ____? m line
the change difference across the membrane is called the ? resting membrane potential
when a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly. the brief reversal back of the charge is called _____? action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers ? motor neurons
axons enter the muscled and branch. each branch that connects to the muscle forms a ? neuromuscular junction
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called ? a motor unit
many motor units form a ? single muscle
a __________ is formed by an enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indentation of the muscle cell membrane. neuromuscular junction
the enlarged nerve terminal is the ? presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the ? synaptic cleft
the muscle fiber between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the ? postsynaptic terminal
each presynaptic terminal contains ? synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called ? acetylcholine
what diffuses across the snyaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptic terminal causing a change in the postsynaptic cell ? acetylcholine
the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzyme called? acetylcholinesterase
what occurs when actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten? muscle contraction
when the ________ shortens it causes the muscle to shorten. sarcomere
the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is called ______? sliding filament mechanism
contraction of the entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers. muscle twitch
a muscle will not respond to a stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called ? threshold
when _____ occurs the muscle fiber will contract maximally threshold
when the muscle fiber contracts maximally this phenomenon is called ? all or none response
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is the ______? lag phase
the time of contraction is the _______? contraction phase
the time during which the muscle relaxes is the ? relaxation phase
where the muscle doesn't have time to fully relax? tetany
the increase in number of motor units being activated is called ? recruitment
the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion is the ? belly
these contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast twitch fibers
these contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow twitch fibers
the most stationary end of the muscle origin
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement? insertion
points of attachment of each muscle are? origin and insertion
at these attachment points, the muscle is connected to the bone by the ? tendon
some muscles have multiple ? origins and heads.
this refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time? muscle tone
isometric equal distance
isotonic equal tension
this results when atp is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells muscle fatigue
the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells. oxygen debt
when at rest muuscles can't stockpile atp but they can store another high energy molecule... creatine phosphate
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are called ? synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another are called ? antagonists
among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement, it is called the ? prime mover
occipito frontalis raises the eyebrows
orbicularis occuli closes the eye lid
orbicularis oris puckers lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
chewing mastication
four chewing muscles temporalis, masseter, & 2 types of pterygoids
kissing muscles ? orbicularis oris & the buccinator
what happens at a neuromuscular junction? a chemical referred to as a neurotransmitter is released
what muscles are involved in mastication? buccinator, masseter, and the temporalis
what are intrinsic tongue muscles? the intrinsic tongue muscles lie entirely within the tongue. & also alter the shape of the tongue for talking and swallowing
what are extrinsic tongue muscles? they attach the tongue to other structures... they reposition the tongue
what do muscles help produce that is essential for the maintenance of normal body temperature heat
what are the four major muscle characteristics ? contractility, excitability, extensibility, elasticity
what is the location of the skeletal muscles attached to the bones, or some facial muscles are attached to the skin.
what is the location of cardiac muscles ? they are found in the walls of the heart
what is the location of smooth muscles? they are mostly found in walls of hollow visceral organs
what are the three types of muscles? skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
the unique characteristic that sets muscles apart from other body tissue? contraction, or shortening
skeletal muscle is also known as? striated muscle or voluntary muscle
what are the four muscle functions? produces movement, maintains posture, stabilizes joints, and generated heat
specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum sarcoplasmic reticulum
irritability ability to recieve and respond to a stimulus
graded responses the way muscles react to stimuli
if tthe nerve supply to a muscle is destroyed, the muscle? loses tone and becomes paralyzed.
flexion movement generally in the sagittal plane
extension movement that increases the angle or distance between two bones
rotation movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis
abduction moving a limb away from the midline
Created by: taylaa94



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