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HIEU 158

Holocaust burnt offering 1935-47 first mass killing of Jews took place in 1940 in Poland
Shoah Hebrew for catastrophe cannot be understood by rationale
Victor Frankl Austrian psychiatrist placed in the worst concentration camp "victims don't necessarily mean they were decent"
Fischer Controversy British historian accused Germans for starting WWI Germany's defeat and humiliation set conditions for Hitler to take over
Sonderweg special path that allowed the Holocaust to occur in Germany
Historian's Quarrel Nazi catastrophe should be understood as one big European Civil War Fascism vs Communism
Functionalism No written intent mostly improvisation with leaders attempting to please the Fuhrer
Intentionalism Hitler played a role, had the intent of killing Jews from the very beginning
Redemptive Anti-Semitism All the wrong in the world was the fault of the Jews
Protocols of the Elders of Zion conspiracy forged in Russia saying that Jews planned to take over the world
pogrom mob riot against Jews
blood libel Jews accused of kidnapping Christian children and using their blood for rituals
deicide Christians accused the Jews of killing Jesus
Dreyfus affair French officer of Jewish descent accused of spying on the French military for Germany and imprisoned accusations all based on antisemitism
Adolf Stoecker Used Anti-semitism as a platform believed that the German culture was corrupted by Jews
Karl Lueger Mayor in Vienna who determined who was a Jew Hitler felt that Lueger was not radical enough Believed that Jews could be baptized and saved
Theodor Fritsch Antisemites Catechism prohibited social intercourse with Jew Keep blood pure
Herero Germany established protectorate in Africa Herero rebelled but was quashed and put into concentration camps
Futurist Manifesto proclaimed Jews as unmanly glorified war, militarism, destruction
Sarajevo 1914 Balkan Wars Franz Ferdinand assassinated in 1914
Schlieffen Plan plan for attack on France and Russia Russia expected to take longer to mobilize
Operation Alberich 1917/1918 As Germans retreated from France, they razed the land and destroyed everything
Total War all resources devoted to war efforts German violated rules of war by attacking neutral ships, executing civilians, bombing cities
Jew Count 1916 census of Jews showing that one percent of Germans were Jews
Erich Ludendorff realized that Germany couldn't win and demanded government to appease the Allies German revolution broke out because they didn't want to engage in a naval battle with the British
Stab-in-the-back blamed Jews for Germany's defeat in WWI and the signing of the Versailles Treaty
True Believer someone who truly believed that Germany needed to clear out the Jews
Lebensraum Living space wanted to expand to the East
Pan-Germanism movement for all Germanic-speaking people to unite
Drang nach osten Drive to the East Germany wanted to expand into the Slavic lands
NSDAP Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party
Beerhall Putsch 1923 attempt at national revolution held by Hitler Hitler realized that to seize power, he had to do through constitutional and legal channels
Working towards the Fuhrer many people tried to interpret Hitler's words and competed with each other to gain Hitler's favor
Versailles Treaty ended WWI in 1919 Germany lost 10% of its territory pay war reparations, disarmament
Article 48 Part of Weimer Republic allowed President to rule by decree in emergencies without the consent of Reichstag
Reichswehr Weimar Republic's military
SA paramilitary of Hitler's movement seen as a liability and was quashed by the SS during the Night of Long Knives
KPD Communist Part of Germany
Volk-Volkisch Nazis used it as a racial term for themselves means people/nation
Hermann Rauschning at first joined the Nazis hoping to reunite his city with Germany but resisted policies that hurt Jews
Paul von Hindenberg ran for and won the presidency over Hitler and was convinced to appoint Hitler as chancellor to buy popular support
Triumph of the Will Nazi propaganda film with excerpts of Nazi leader speeches
Enabling Act March 1933 allowed Hitler to dispense Reichstag approval
Dachau first concentration camp mainly filled with Communists and Social Democrats
Gleichschaltung "shifting into gear" organizations have to adhere to Nazi ideology expelled non-Germans many did so without being asked to in order to "fit in"
sterilization legally sterilizing anyone seen as unfit
mercy killings euthanasias
Well of Life program where racially fit women were chosen to mate with SS men Polish children that looked Aryan kidnapped to live with German families
Heinrich Himmler head of SS delegated and ran concentration camps
Gestapo Secret police
SS consisted of Hitler's bodyguards, Men in Way, Death Guard Formation
Swing Kids youth who opposed Nazi ideology and Hitler youth
Night of the Long Knives 1934 SA considered a threat by Hitler and crushed by the SS
Judenrein "Free of Jews" Nazi term to designate an area cleansed of Jewish presence
Nuremberg Laws 1935 established who was a Jew protection of German blood
Aryanization transfer of Jewish businesses to Germans
Haavara Agreement 1933 concluded by Zionists and Nazis emigrate Jews to Palestine expensive for German Jews to get a certificate of emigration
German Christians (DC) Jesus was an Aryan despised things that were soft, weak, unmanly (Jewish) demanded exclusion of racial non-Aryans
Confessing Church believed that race was irrelevant in membership to the Church
Martin Niemoller Protestant Pastor that at first welcomed Hitler but then became part of Pastor's Emergency League and was sent to a concentration camp
Hossbach memorandum Hitler informed his generals of his plans for Austria's annexation
Anschluss 1938 Austria's annexation
Munich Agreement Chamberlain appeased Hitler by allowed Germany to annex Czechoslovakia
Sudetenland Sudeten Germans living in Czechoslovakia
Kristallnacht Fall 1938 Herschel Grynspan shot an officer at the German embassy Hitler used this to push Germans in attacking Jewish homes and businesses Jews were told to pay for the destruction
Four-Year Plan dramatically diminished unemployment, rearmament went against Treaty of Versailles increase production and initiate building architectural projects
Hitler-Stalin Pact Aug 1939 Germany assured that they could proceed into Poland and divide the land with Soviet Union
Blitzkrieg lightening war destroyed Polish airforce
Georg Elser carpenter who planned to assassinate Hitler anniversay of Beerhall Putsch on Nov 1939 missed Hitler and sent to Dachau
T-4 euthanasia program launched in 1940
Hadamar one of the T-4 clinics death by gas, starvation, injection
Irmgard Huber head nurse of Hadamar falsified death certificates
Kaiser's Coffee Polish gassed in mobile gas vans bottled CO introduced into rear of vehicle
Cardinal Galen criticized Hitler's movement
Einsatzgruppen task forces responsible for mass killings of civilians throughout Eastern Europe
Hans Frank leader of the General Government in Poland Polish civilians as forced labor and Jews in ghettos
Nisko town in Poland Jews shipped to reservations at Nisko and left there with nothing
Madagascar Plan move Jews to Madagascar by using British ships to transport the Jews
Litzmannstadt earliest and longest lived ghetto in Poland severe overcrowding, disease, no running water
Judenrat Jewish council that decided who to transfer to death camps attempted to negotiate between Nazis and Jews
Directive 21 Dec 1940 Germany must be prepared to overthrow Soviet Union
Wehrmacht unified armed forces of Germany
War of annihilation Wehrmacht used primitive battle tactics many were executed for mild infractions (fear factor)
Babi Yar Sept 1941 Jews in Kiev shot at the ravine one of the earlier massacres of Jews
Commissar Order Hitler ordered the deaths of Soviet Union's political officers
Yakov Dzugashvili Stalin's son who volunteered to go the front and was captured and sent to concentration camp
JDC Joint Distribution Committee American Jewish main organization in U.S. that helped Jews abroad
Aliyah Beth code name given to illegal immigration by Jews to Palestine
LTI Language of the Third Reich change in the value of the words due to its frequent occurrences
Created by: rogerthatxD