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ZOO 250 Exam III

a structure specialized to detect a stimulus sensory receptor
the conversion of one form of energy to another transduction
small, local electrical change on a receptor cell brought about by an initial stimulus receptor potential
a subjective awareness of the stimulus sensation
type of stimulus or the sensation it produce type of stimulus or the sensation it produces
area that detects stimuli for a sensory neuron receptive field
brain identifies site of stimulation sensory projection
intensity is encoded in _ ways 3. 1. which fibers are sending signals 2. how many fibers are doing so 3. how fast these fibers are firing
how long the stimulus lasts duration
if stimulus is prolonged, the firing of the neuron gets slower over time, and we become less aware of the stimulus sensory adaptation
generate a burst of action potentials when first stimulated, then quickly adapt and sharply reduce or stop signaling even though the stimulus continues phasic receptor
receptor for smell, hair movement, and cutaneous pressure phasic
adapt slowly, generate nerve signals more steadily tonic receptor
receptor for body position, muscle tension, and joint motion proprioceptors
_ senses have structurally simple receptors general
dendrites that are not wrapped in connective tissue unencapsulated nerve endings
unencapsulated for pain and temperature in the skin and mucous membrane free nerve endings
unencapsulated for light touch texture; associated with Merkel cells at base of epidermis tactile discs
unencapsulated wrap around base of hair follicle and monitor movement of hair hair receptors
encapsulated tactile; in mucous membranes Krause end bulb
dendrites wrapped by glial cells or connective tissue; enhanced sensitivity or selectivity of response encapsulated nerve endings
for light touch texture in the dermal papillae of hairless skin tactile (Meissner) corpuscles
encapsulated & phasic; deep pressure, stretch, tickle and vibration; periosteum of bone and deep dermis of skin lamellated (pacinian) corpuscles
encapsulated & tonic; heavy touch, pressure, joint movements and skin stretching bulbous (Ruffini) corpuscles
discomfort caused by tissue injury or noxious stimulation, and typically leading to evasive action pain
2 types; provides different pain sensations nociceptors
travels in myelinated fibers at 12-30 m/sec; sharp, localized, stabbing pain perceived with injury fast pain
travels unmyelinated fibers at 0.5-2 m/sec; longer-lasting, dull, diffuse feeling slow pain
release chemicals that stimulate pain injured tissues
most potent pain stimulus known bradykinin
makes us aware of injury and activates cascade of reactions that promote healing pain
pain in viscera often mistakenly thought to come from the skin or other superficial site referred pain
sensation that results from action of chemicals on taste buds – inside cheeks, and on soft palate, pharynx, and epiglottis gustation
_ types of lingual papillae 4 1. filiform 2. foliate 3. fungiform 4. vallate (circumvallate)
has no taste buds and is important for food texture filiform
no taste buds and is weakly developed in humans foliate
located at the tips and sides of tongue fungiform
located at the rear of the tongue and contains half of all taste buds vallate (circumvallate)
have microvilli and taste pores and synapse with and release neurotransmitters onto sensory neurons at their base taste cells
pit in which taste hairs project taste pores
taste cells are _ cells epithelial
stem cells that replace taste cells every 7-10 days basal cells
produced by metal ions (sodium and potassium) salty
associated with carbohydrates and other foods of high caloric value sweet
produced by acids such as in citrus fruits sour
associated with spoiled foods and alkaloids such as nicotine, caffeine, quinine, and morphine bitter
"meaty" taste of amino acides in chicken or beef broth umami
taste is influenced by texture, aroma, temperature, and appearance
hot pepper stimulates free nerve endings
tip of tongue is most sensitive to _, edges to _ & _, and rear to _ sweet, salt, sour, bitter
sense of smell olfaction
contains 10-20 million olfactory cells, epithelial supporting cells, and basal stem cells olfactory mucosa
only neurons in the body directly exposed to the external environment olfactory cells
life span of an olfactory cell 60 days
continually divide and differentiate into new olfactory cells basal cells
Created by: Jade_Jenkins



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