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Reproductive System

Chapter 22 Q & A

What are the primary sex organs? The testes in males and the ovaries in females, they produce and house the sex cells
What are secondary sex organs? They provide the route by which sex cells unite
What is the function of the testes? Generate sperm and secrete the male sex hormone testosterone
What id the function of the seminal vesicles? Secrete a thick, yellowish fluid which comprises about 60% of semen
What is the function of the prostate gland? Secretes a thin, milky fluid that comprises about 30% of the fluid part of semen and adds volume to the semen
What is the function of the bulbourethral glands? Secrete a clear fluid during sexual arousal that is a lubricant for intercourse and neutralizes the acidity of residual urine in the urethra
What is the function of the penis? It deposits sperm in the female vagina
What is the function of the ovaries? Produce eggs cells and sex hormones
What is the function of the fallopian tubes? It is the usual site for egg fertilization
What is the function of the uterus? Houses and nutures a growing embryo
What is the function of the vagina? Serves as a receptacle for the penis and sperm, a route for the discharge of menstrual blood, and the passageway for the birth of a baby
What happens in the ovarian cycle during the last days of menstruation? The hypothalamus releases GnRH which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH
What happens in the ovarian cycle during the follicular phase? As a follicle developes it secretes estrogen and progesterone. As it matures, it migrates to the surface of the ovary. Estrogen levels peak, triggering a spike in LH
What happens in the ovarian cycle during ovulation? The follicle ruptures and releases the ovum. The fimbriae of the fallopian tube catch the emerging oocyte
What happens in the ovarian cycle during the luteal phase? The corpus luteum is formed. The endometrium thickens and becomes more vascular. If fertilization does not occur, the luteum degenerates into corpus albicans
What happens in the ovarian cycle during menstruation? Estrogen & progesterone levels plummet and the endometrium sloughs off. FSH levels begin to rise and the cycle starts again
What happens in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle? The endometrium sheds its functional layer. This consists of 3-5 days
What happens in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle? Menstruation ceases, estrogen levels rise, and the endometrium thickens to 2-3 mm. This is during days 6-14
What happens in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle? After ovulation, the functional layer thickens even more to about 5-6 mm, just right for a fertilized ovum. This occurs during days 15-26
What happens in the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle? If fertilization doesn't occur, the corpus luteum atrophies and progesterone levels plummet. The endometrium becomes ischemic & necrotic, sloughing off the uterine wall. This forms the menstrual flow. This occurs during days 26-28
What is cryptorchidism? Undescended testes. If they don't descend on their own during the first year of life, typically surgery is done. If left untreated, it could lead to sterility or testicular cancer
What is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)? Noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. Symptoms include difficulty urinating, slowing of the urine stream, and frequent urination
How is prostate cancer diagnosed? By digital rectal exam as well as by blood tests for PSA & acid phosphatase
Are there symptoms of prostate cancer? It usually goes undetected because the malignant tumor grows slowly and tends to develop outside of the gland, so it doesn't obstruct urine flow.
What are the causes of male infertility? Primarily a low sperm count. Size, shape, and motility of sperm also influence fertility
What should the total volume of semen per ejaculation be? At least 2ml and contain at least 40 million sperm. 75% should be alive, 30% should have a normal shape, 25% should be swimming rapidly forward, & 50% should be swimming forward, if only sluggishly
What indicates infertility? A sperm count lower than 20 million
What are the symptoms of breast cancer? A lump in the breast or armpit; redness, dimpling, or puckering of the skin of the breast; or drainage from the nipple
Who are at risk for breast cancer? Women with a family history of breast cancer, women who begin menstruating before 12, go thru menopause after 55, and women who have never had children or had them after age 30. Other risk factors are aging, excessive alcohol use, & exposure to radiation
What is menopause? When menstruation ceases, usually about the age of 45 or 50. It is associated with declining levels of estrogen & progesterone. As a result, the uterus, vagina, & breast atrophy. Common symptoms are hot flashes and mood changes
Created by: cbooher16



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