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Handley's Ch.6

Contractility Ability of muscle to shorten with force.
Excitability Capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus.
Extensability Ability for muscle to be stretched.
Elasticity Ability tp recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched.
Muscle Helps produce heat essential for maintenance of normal body temperature.
Epimysium Connective tissue sheath surrounding the muscle.
Fascia Connective tissue located outside of the epimysium.
Muscle Fasciculi (Fascicle) Numerous visible bundles that are surrounded by loose connective tissue.
Perimysium Loose connective tissue that surrounds muscle fasciculi.
Fibers Single muscle cells that compose fasciculi.
Endomysium Connective tissue sheath that surrounds each fiber.
Myofibrils Threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other. Also fills the cytoplasm of each fiber.
2 types of protein fibers Actin Myofilaments and Myosin Myofilaments.
Actin Myofilaments Thin myofilament that resemble to minute strands of pearls twisted together.
Myosin Myofilaments Thick myofilaments that resemble bundles of minute golf clubs.
Sarcomeres Highly ordered units formed by Actin and Myosin myofilaments.
Myofibrils Formed by highly ordered units (Sarcomeres) that join end to end.
Resting Membrane Potential Charge difference across the membrane.
Action Potential The brief reversal back of the charge.
Motor Neurons Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers.
Axons Enter the muscle and branch.
Neuromuscular Junction (Synapse) Each branch that connects to the muscle near the center of the wall.
Motor Unit Single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates.
Presynaptic Terminal Enlarged nerve terminal.
Synaptic Cleft The space between the Presynaptic Terminal and the Muscle Cell.
Postsynaptic Terminal Muscle fiber.
Synaptic Vesicles Contained in each presynaptic terminal and secretes a nerotransmitter.
Acetycholine Neurotransmitter that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptic terminal causing change in the postsynaptic cell.
Acetycholinesterase The acetycholine is rapidly broken down by enzymes.
Sliding Fialment Mechanism Sliding of actin myofilaments during contraction.
Muscle Twitch Contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus.
Threshold A point in which the muscle fiber will contract maximally.
Lag Phase The beginning of a contraction.
Contraction Phase The time of contraction.
Relaxation Phase The time which during a muscle relaxes.
Tetany Muscle remains contracted without relaxing.
Recruitment The increase in number of motor units being activated.
Origin (Head) The most stationary end of the muscle.
Insertion The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement.
Belly The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion.
Synergists Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements.
Antagonists Muscles that work opposite of each other.
Prime Mover One muscle playing the major role in accomplishing the desired movement in a group of synergists.
Creatine Phosphate High energy molecule that is stored in muscle cells.
Anaerobic Respiration Without oxygen.
Aerobic Respiration With oxygen (more efficient).
Oxygen Debt The amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose.
Muscle Fatigue Results when ATP is used faster than it is produced.
Isometric (Equal Distance)Length of muscle doesn't change. Tension increases during contractions.
Isotonic (Equal Tension) The tension produced is constant during contractions. The length of the muscle changes.
Muscle Tone Keeps head up and back straight. Refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time.
Fast Twitch Fibers Contract and fatigue quickly.
Slow Twitch Fibers Contract slowly and more resistant to fatigue.
Occipitofrontalis Raises the eyebrow.
Orbicularis Oculi Closes the eyelid.
Orbicularis Oris Pucker the lips (kissing muscle).
Buccinator Flattens the cheeks (trumpeters muscle).
Orbicularis Oris & Buccinator Work together for kissing.
Zygomaticus Smiling.
Levator Labii Superiorous Sneering.
Depressor Anguli Oris Frowning.
Mastication Chewing.
4 pairs of mastication Masseter, Temporalis, and 2 pair of pterygoids.
2 toungue muscles Intrensic and Extrensic.
Intrensic Tongue Muscle Changes the shape of the tongue.
Extrensic Tongue Muscle Moves the tongue.
Sternocleidomastoid Rotates and abducts the neck (Twisted neck).
Z Line Extension of a sarcomere.
I Band Light area on each side of the Z Lines.
A Band Extends the length of the myosin. The darker region in the sarcomere.
H Zone The light area in the center of each sarcomere consisting of myosin only.
M Line A dark staining band in the center of a sarcomere where myofilaments are anchored.
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) Needed for energy for muscle contractions.
ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) Plus Phosphate.
8 ways muscles recieve names: Location, Size, Orientation of fibers, Shape, Origin, Insertion, Function, Ect.
Created by: Savannah96



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