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Endocrine System

Chapter 12 Q & A

What are the structures of the endocrine system? Pineal, hypothalamus, pituitary, parathyroids, thyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, & testes
What is the role of hormones in the endocrine system? They travel through the bloodstream to stimulate specific target cells. They then bind with a receptor to trigger changes within the cell.
What is the function of the anterior pituitary? Consisting of glandular tissue, it synthesizes & secretes a number of very important hormones, under the direction of the hypothalamus
What is the function of the posterior pituitary? Consisting of neural tissue, it simply stores hormones synthesized by the hypothalamus
What is the function of the pineal? Produces melatonin and MAY also regulate the timing of puberty
What is the function of the thymus? It secretes thymosin and thymopoietin, 2 hormones that have a role in the development of the immune system
What is the function of the thyroid gland? It secretes T3 & T4, and can also store them for later use, increases the body's metabolic rate, increases heat production, and calcitonin is also secreted here
What is the function of the parathyroid gland? Secretes PTH to maintain calcium homeostasis
What is the function of the adrenal glands? The adrenal medulla secretes catacholamines to prepare the body for physical activity and boost glucose levels. The adrenal cortex secretes corticosteroids such as mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, & sex steroids
What is the function of the pancreas? As an endocrine gland, the alpha cells secrete glucagon, beta cells secrete insulin, & delta cells secrete somatostatin
What is gigantism? Hypersecretion of growth hormone during a child's growing years resulting in rapid, excessive skeletal growth
What is acromegaly? Hypersecretion of growth hormone, after the epiphysial plates have fused, forming new bone, causing the hands, feet, face, & jaw to enlarge
What is pituitary dwarfism? Hyposecretion of growth hormone while a child is still growing causing stunted growth. Usually treated with growth hormone injections
What is seasonal affective disorder? Occurring during winter months, when sunlight is limited, high levels of melatonin cause sleepiness, depression, irritability, & carb cravings.
What is cretinism? If a child is born without a thyroid gland, the lack of TH causes retarded growth & sexual development, low metabolic rate, & mental retardation
What is myxedema Prolonged hyposecretion of TH later in life causing weight gain, hair loss, fatigue, & swelling & firmness of the skin
What is Graves' disease? Hypersecretion of TH that stimulates the body's metabolism, causing unexplained weight loss, increased heart rate, nervousness, & exophthalmos
What is simple goiter? An enlarged thyroid gland due to dietary deficiency of iodine. Without iodine, the production of TH falls
What is tetany? Caused by hypocalcemia, it is the sustained contraction of a muscle
What is carpopedal spasm? A cardinal sign of hypocalcemia, it is tetany of the hands and feet
What are the effects of hypocalcemia? Nerve & muscle cells become more excitable. This leads to muscle tremors, spasms, or tetany. A further drop in calcium can cause the muscles of the larynx to spasm enough to stop airflow
What are the effects of hypercalcemia? Fewer sodium ions flow in & the cells becomes less responsive, resulting in muscle weakness, sluggish reflexes, & in severe cases, cardiac arrest
What is Cushing syndrome? Hypersecretion of cortisol from the adrenal gland, causing "moon face", "buffalo hump", hyperglycemia, muscle weakness, edema, & hypertension. Also the hypersecretion of adrenal androgens results in premature puberty & masculine characteristics in women
What is Addison's disease? Hyposecretion of mineralocorticoids & glucocorticoids resulting in loss of fluid & electrolytes, weakness, muscle wasting, dehydration, & weight loss. Also called adrenal cortical insufficiency, without treatment, it is life-threatening
How does aging effect the endocrine system? There is a decrease in secretion of TH, decrease in metabolism, osteoporosis, gradual rise in fasting glucose levels, decreased muscle mass, & increase in fat storage
What is the cause of diabetes? Inadequate amount of insulin or a diminished number of normal insulin receptors
What are the signs of diabetes? Hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, & polyphagia
What are the complications of diabetes? If left untreated, it results in fatigue, weight loss, & ketone bodies. This causes nausea, vomiting, fruity odor of the breath, & possibly coma & death. Diabetes damages blood vessels and causes kidney disease
Created by: cbooher16



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