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Endocrine System

Chapter 12 definitions

TermDefinition
Adenohypophysis Anterior pituitary gland; larger of the pituitary glands; consists of glandular tissue
Adrenal cortex Outer portion of the adrenal gland that secretes corticosteroids
Adrenal gland Gland perched on top of the kidney; consists of 2 distinct glands - the adrenal medulla & the adrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla Inner portion of adrenal gland that functions as part of the sympathetic nervous system
Catacholamines Epinephrine and norepinephrine; secreted by adrenal medulla
Corticosteroids Steroid hormones secreted by adrenal cortex
Endocrine gland Ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
Gonads Primary sex organs, which are the testes in males and the ovaries in females
Graves' disease Disorder resulting from hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Hormones Chemicals secreted by glands and specialized cells of the endocrine system
Neurohypophysis Posterior pituitary gland; smaller of the pituitary glands; consists of neural tissue
Pancreas Secretes digestive enzymes (exocrine function) as well as hormones used to regulate blood glucose levels (endocrine function)
Parathyroid glands Glands embedded on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland that secrete a hormone used to regulate blood calcium levels
Pineal gland Produces the hormone melatonin, which increases at night and decreases during the day
Pituitary gland Small gland attached to the lower surface of the hypothalamus that secretes a number of hormones that regulate many bodily processes; consists of an anterior and posterior lobe
Target cells Cells having receptors for a particular hormone
Tetany Sustained muscle contraction
Thymus Secretes hormones having a role in the development of the immune system
Thyroid gland Gland in the neck theat secretes hormones that affect the body's metabolic rate
Infundibulum A stalk that connects the hypothalamus and pituitary
Releasing hormones Stimulate the anterior pituitary to secrete its hormones
Inhibiting hormones Suppress hormone secretion by the anterior pituitary
Tropic hormones Stimulate other endocrine cells to release their hormones
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone; thyrotropin
Growth hormone (GH) Acts on the entire body to promote protein synthesis, lipid & carb metabolism, & bone & skeletal muscle growth; somatotropin
Luteinizing hormone (LH) A gonadotropin that stimulates ovulation & estrogen & progesterone synthesis in females & the secretion of testosterone by the testes in males
Prolactin Stimulates milk production in the mammary glands in females; in males, it may make the testes more sensitive to LH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Gonadotropin that stimulates the production of eggs in the ovaries of females & sperm in the testes of males
Oxytocin Stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth; also triggers the release of milk from the breasts during lactation
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Acts on the kidneys to reduce urine volume & prevent dehydration; also called vasopressin
Thyroid colloid Thick fluid that fills the thyroid follicles of thryoid tissue
Calcitonin Secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid that triggers the deposition of calcium in bone, thus, promoting bone formation
Aldosterone Principle mineralocorticoid that acts on the kidneys to promote Na+ retention & K+ secretion; also causes water retention
Cortisol Principle glucocorticoid that helps the body adapt to stress, repair damaged tissue, has an anti-inflammatory effect, suppresses the immune system if secreted over a long period, & essential for maintaining normal BP
Alpha cells Cells in the pancreas that secrete the hormone glucagone
Beta cells Cells in the pancreas that secrete the hormone insulin
Delta cells Cells in the pancreas that secrete somatostatin, a hormone that works within the pancreas to inhibit the release of glucagon, insulin, & growth hormone
Prostaglandins Lipid molecules that integrate the activities of other cells; released within the tissue where they are produced
Created by: cbooher16