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dr ray anatomy final

anatomy final

QuestionAnswer
1. functions of the digestive system 1.) ingestion-introduction of food into the stomach 2.)mastication-chewing, chemical digestion requires large surface area so breaking down large particles mechanically facilitates chemical digestion
continued... 3.) propulsion -deglutition:swallowing -peristalsis:moves material thru digest. tract. a wave of circ. smooth muscle relaxation moves ahead of the bolus of food or chyme allowing digestive tract to expand. then a wave of contraction of the circ. smooth.
continued... muscles behind the bolus of food or chyme propels it through the digestive tract. *mass movements-in large intestine
continued 4.) mixing-segmental contractions 5.) secretion:lubricate liquefy, digest -mucus:secreted along entire digestive tract, lubricates food and lining, coats lining and protects from mechanical digestion, from acid and from digestive enzymes -next slide
continued.. -water:liquefaction makes food easier to digest and absorb -bile:emulsifies fats -enzymes:chemical digestion
continued.. 6.)digestion-mechanical and chemical 7.)absorption-movement from tract into circulation or lymph 8.)elimination:waste products removed from body; feces defecation
2. tissue layer of the digestive tract 1.mucosa-innermost layer, consisting of mucous epithelium (strat. squamous in mouth, oropharyn, esophagus and anal canal) simple columnar epithelium in the rest of the tract -loose CT:lamina propia -muscularis mucosae: smooth muscle
continued.. 2. submucosa-thick CT layer w/ nerves blood vessels, small glands. parasympathetic submucosal plexus 3.muscularis:2 or 3 layers of smooth muscle 2 are circ. and longitudinal. exception:esophagus where the upper 1/3 is striated this layer also contains...
continued... the myentric plexus. the myentric and submucosal plexi together called the enteric or intramural plexus. import. in control of movement and secretion 4.serosa or adventitia:CT, serosa is present, called visceral peritoneum where adv. is present, CT blend
3. which layers contain the enteric plexus? muscularis (alicias answer-esophagus, stomach, intestines)
4.) tongue 1.muscular with free anterior surface & attached posterior surface. covered w/ moist stratified squam. epithel. -intrinsic muscles-change shape/extrinsic protrude or retract tongue, move side to side
continued... 2.lingual frenulum attaches tongue inferiorly to floor of oral cavity 3.terminal sulcus:groove divides tongue into anterior 2/3;posterior 1/3 4.anterior part:papillae, some of which hv taste buds
continued... 5. posterior part: non papillae and a few scattered taste buds. lymphoid tissue embedded in post. surface: lingual tonsil 6. moves food in mouth, participates in speech and swallowing
5.) salivary glands 1. 3 pairs of multicellular glands -parotid:largest, serous, just anterior to the ear. parotid duct crosses over masseter penetrates buccinator,& enters the oral cavity adjacent to the 2nd upper molar
continued.. -submandibular-mixed more serous than mucous, poster. half of infer. border of mandible. duct enters oral cavity on either side of lingual frenulum -sublingual-smalles, mixed, primarily mucous, each has 10-12 ducts that enter the floor of the oral cavity
continued... 2. lingual glands-small, coiled tubular glands on surface of tongue
6.) what does saliva contain? contains salivary amylase that breaks down starch into disaccharides maltose and isomaltose (alicias answer-water, mucous, electrolytes, lisozyme,salivary, amylase, lingual lipase)
7.) the esophagus -transports food from pharynx to stomach -passes thru esophageal hiatus (opening) of diaphragm & ends at stomach *hiatal hernia:widening of hiatus -sphincters *upper-striated *lower-smooth -mucosa-moist strat. squam. epit. produces thick layer of mucus
8.) where the swallowing reflex area in the brain is medulla oblongata
9.) the stomach phone
10.) what the cells in the gastric glands produce phone
11.) what cells produce pepsinogen? chief cells
12.) what does pepsin digest? proteins
13.) what happens during each of the stomach phases? phone
14.) the function of the villi in the duodenum folds of the mucosa, to increase surface area, that contain capillaries and lacteals
15.) which cell types in the duodenum produce digestive enzymes? duodenal enteroendocrine cells-release secretin and cholecystokinin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide(ATP)
16.) what types of contractions in the small intestines do the contents( chyme) ileocecal sphincter remains slightly contracted until peristaltic waves reach it; it relaxes allowing chyme to move into cecum
17.) function of the hepatocytes in the liver bile production, storage, intercoversion of nutrients, detoxification, phagocytosis, synthesis of blood components
18.) what is bile? aids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
19.) what does the gallbladder do? bile arrives constantly from liver is stored and concentrated
20.) what do the digestive emzymes produce in the pancreas? amylase and lipases (pancreatic)
21.) parts of the large intestines phone
22.) functions of the large intestines digestion (mechanical or chemical), absorption, transport
23.) what types of muscle composes the external anal sphincter? skeletal muscle
24.) functions of the urinary system *filtering of blood: involves 3 processes-filtration, reabsorption, secretion *regulation of blood volume, concentration of blood solutes: Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, HPO4^-2, pH of extracellular fluid:secrete H+, blood cell synthesis *synthesis of vit. D
25.)what is the renal capsule? fibrous CT, surrounds each kidney
26.) what are renal pyramids? cone shaped, base is boundary between cortex and medulla. apex of pyramid is renal papilla points toward sinus
27.) function unit of the kidney nephron
28.) glomerulus network of capillaries, blood enters through afferent arteriole, exits through efferent arteriole
29.) filtration cells around glomerular capillaries bowmans capsule outer parietal (simple squamous epithelium) and visceral(cells called-PODOCYTES) layers
30.) window like openings in the endothelial capillary cells fenestrae
31.) where does the fluid from the goes after it leaves the bowmans capsule the proximal convoluted tubules (proximal tubule)
32.) structure of a loop of henle phone
33.) function of peritubular capillaries peritubular capillaries form a plexus around the proximal and distal tubes
34.) how kidney function is achieved overall phone
35.) what is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule and the descending loop of henle? tubular reabsortion-occurs as filtrate flows through the lumens of proximal tubules, loop of henle, distal tubule, and collecting ducts
36.)what happends to the solute concentration in the distale tubule phone
37.) what hormone of the pit. controls dehydration ADH
38.) how does urine get to the urinary bladder? phone
39.) anatomy and function of the urinary bladder phone
40.) primary functions of the reproductive system male-serves to produce sperm and introduce them into the female body female-produces eggs receives sperm, provides for the union of these gametes, harbors the fetus, gives birth, and nourishes the offspring
41.) male anatomical structures of reproduction gonads (testes), duct system, glands, penis (phone)
42.) cremaster and dartos muscles help regulate temperature
43.) where are sperm cells produced? seminiferous tubules
44.)which cells produce testosterone? interstitial cells
45.) where the testes descend during fetal development? phone...weak part in abdominal wall. herniation
46.) where do sperm cells mature and are stored? epididymis
47.) where is seminal fluid produced? seminal vesicles-60% prostate gland-30% bulbouethral glands-5%
48.) function of the corpora cavernosa a pair of sponge like columns of erectile tissue that engorge with blood during penile erection
49.) the enlargement of the corpus spongiosum at the tip of the penis glans penis
50.) female organs of reproduction ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genital organs, mammary glands
51.) what is oogenesis and where does it come from? production of a secondary oocyte in ovaries
52.) where ferilization normally occurs the uterine tube (specifically in the ampulla, the widest part)
53.) which layer of the uterus the embryo is normally implanted in? the functional endometrium (alicias-endothelium)
54.) what ruptures to release the secondary oocyte and what hormone surges to accomplish this? the graafian (ovaria) follicle ruptures to release the oocyte, becoming known as the corpus luteum, FSH
55.) which hormones maintain pregnancy? HCG, progesterone, estrogen
Created by: tiffanynp