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Ch.29 Athens

History Alive! The Ancient World ©2004 TCI

Who led Athens to rebuild? Pericles
When was Athens the artistic and cultural center of Greece? 479 - 431 B.C.E.
What is an agora? the public meeting place in the center of a Greek city
What is an acropolis? the hill above a Greek city upon which temples were built
What is the Pantheon? the temple honoring the goddess Athena, built on the acropolis above Athens
How tall were most Athens houses? one story
What were most Athens houses made with? mud bricks
How were Athens homes lit? oil lamps
What was the interior of most Athens houses like in winter? smoky and cold
What was the interior of most Athens houses like in summer? smoky and hot
What were the streets between houses in Athens like? narrow, crooked, and dirty
Why did Athens neighborhoods smell bad? people threw their garbage in the streets
What were government building in Athens made with? stone
Why did Athenians believe that Athena had not abandoned the city after the Persians burned it to the ground? the sacred olive tree sprouted a new leaf from its burnt trunk
The temple of Delphi was dedicated to which god? Apollo
Who conveyed the words of Apollo? the Oracle of Delphi
Where was the home of the gods? Mount Olympus
What is a myth? a traditional story that helps to explain a culture's beliefs
Where did Greeks hold their religious ceremonies? outside
What did Greeks build as dwelling places for the gods? temples
What are the three kinds of Greek columns? Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
Which kind of column had no base and got slimmer toward the top? Doric
Which kind of column sat on a base and had spirals carved in the top? Ionic
Which was the most decorative kind of column, with carvings that looked like leaves at the top? Corinthian
How many columns were along the front and how many along each side of the Parthenon? 8 and 17
What are the triangular areas on the front and back of the Parthenon created by the sloping roofs called? pediments
What is the band of sculptures at the top of the Parthenon called? frieze
What are the sculptures in the frieze called? metopes
What was in the main room of a Greek temple? a statue of the temple's god or goddess
How tall was the statue of Athena in the Parthenon? 30 feet
What was the statue of Athena in the Parthenon made of? wood covered with ivory, dressed in clothes and decorated with gold
What was the first step in making a stone sculpture? a life-size clay model supported by wooden or metal frames
Who was the sculptor who created the statue of Athens in the Parthenon? Phidias
What was added to Greek stone sculptures? bronze pieces, wax, and bright colored paint
What was one of the great achievements of Greek sculptors? creating lifelike statues
What was the main influence of early Greek statues? Egyptian sculpture
What were early Greek sculptures like? larger-than-life figures that faced front, with their arms held stiffly at their sides
What were later Greek sculptures like? realistic figures in natural poses with detailed muscles, hair, and clothing
What was carved on the gold shield on the statue of Athena at the Parthenon? the faces of Pericles and Phidias
Where was drama performed in Athens? the Theater of Dionysus
How many people could the Theater of Dionysus hold? thousands
In Greek drama, what was the name for a group of actors who recited lines that commented on the actions of the characters? chorus
Who were the actors in Greek drama? men
What did Greek actors do to indicate whether they were playing a male or female character; and whether a character was happy or sad? wore masks
What were Greek theaters shaped like? a bowl
Where were Greek theaters built? in the side of a hill
What were the four categories in Greek drama competitions? tragic playwrights, comic playwrights, leading tragic actor, and leading comic actor
What is philosophy? the search for wisdom or knowledge
Who was the greatest philosopher in Athens? Socrates
How did Socrates teach people? he asked questions
What happened when Socrates' enemies accused him or not honoring the gods and misleading young people? he was put on trial
When was Socrates put on trial? 399 B.C.E.
What happened when Socrates went on trial? he was sentenced to death
How did Socrates die? he drank hemlock
Who was Socrates' most famous student? Plato
What festival honored Athena? the Panathenaea
What was the high point of the Panathenaea? the procession
What happened during the procession of the Panathenaea? Athenians conveyed a new robe for the statue of Athena through the city to the temple
What was the Panathenaic event in which men punched, kicked, and even choked each other? the pancratium
When did the pancratium end? when one fighter surrendered, lost consciousness, or died
What were winning athletes in the Panathenaic games given? a laurel wreath and pots of olive oil
What games were played to honor the god Zeus? the Olympics
Created by: mushijima