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Chemistry of Life

Chapter 2 Anatomy & Physiology

anything with mass and occupies space is called Matter
Consists if a substance that can be either elements or compounds Matter
Are known as pure substances Elements
they can't be broken down or decomposed into two or more substances Elements
Chemical combinations of two or more elements Compounds
the 12 elements that make the body function properly is called Trace elements
The symbol "O" stands for Oxygen
the Symbol "C" Stands for Carbon
The Symbol "H" stands for Hydrogen
The symbol "N" stands for Nitrogen
The symbol "Ca" stands for Calcium
the symbol "P" Stands for Phosphorous
the symbol "S" stands for Sulfur
the symbol "K" stands for Potassium
the Symbol "Na" stands for Sodium
the Symbol "Cl" stands for Chlorine
The symbol "Mg" stands for Magnesium
The symbol "Fe" stands for Iron
the symbol "Cr" Stands for Chromium
the symbol "Co" stands for Cobalt
The symbol "Cu" Stands for Copper
the symbol "F" Stands for Fluorine
the symbol "I" stands for Iodine
the symbol "Mn" stands for Manganese
elements that consist of particles are called Atoms
Particle with a positive electrical charge contained in the nucleus if an atom Proton
Particle in an atom that DOES NOT have an electrical charge that is contained in the nucleus of an atom Neutron
Protons and Neutrons are packed together in the center of an atom called the Nucleus
The number if protons in the nucleus determines the element's Atomic Number
The number of protons and neutrons added together is known as it's Atomic Weight
Tiny particles with negative charge Electrons
An atom of an element that contains a different number of neutrons is called Isotope
the nuclei of the isotopes brake down, or decay, and, as they do, they emit radiation. this is called Radioisotopes
The process of decay is called Radioactivity
Electrons in the outermost shell is called Valence Electrons
A combination of two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond Molecule
theses are formed when one atom transfers an electron from its outer shell to another atom Ionic Bonds
Atoms that change from neutral to negative or positive are called Ions
Atoms having a positive charge are called Cations
Atoms having a negative charge are called Anions
the braking or dissolving or ionic bonds are called Dissociation
some compounds give the solution the ability to conduct electricity. this is called Ionization
A compound that ionizes when dissolved in suitable ionising solvents such as water (hint: its in smart water) Electrolytes
these are formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons as they attempt to fill their outer shells Covalent bonds
A weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another. Hydrogen Bond
The capacity to do work; To put matter into motion Energy
Has potential to do work; it's just not doing work at the moment. is called Potential energy
Energy in motion is called Kinetic Energy
The sum of all chemical reactions in the body is called Metabolism
This involves braking down complex compounds into smaller ones Catabolism
this involves building larger and more complex chemical molecules from smaller subunits Anabolism
Heat speeds up molecular movement is called Temperature
When two or more elements combine to create a new substance that has its own chemical properties Compound
results in two or more substance blend together rather then chemically combine. Mixture
The production of energy in cells is called Cellular Respiration
Any substance that releases a hydrogen ion (H+) when dissolved in water Acid
these are also called Proton Donors Acid
Also called Proton Acceptors Bases
A mixture of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution pH
A solution with a pH less then 7 is Acidic
Solutions with a pH greater then 7 are Basic
Commonly called sugars or starches Carbohydrates
Body's main energy source Carbohydrates
The primary source of energy used by most of the body's cells Glucose
Found in Fruit Fructose
it's converted to glucose in the body Fructose
Found in Dairy products Galactose
the stored form of glucose is called Glycogen
the form in which plants store polysaccharides Starch
produced by plant cells as part of their cell walls Cellulose
this plays a major role in the body by Reserving supply energy Lipids
they provide structure to a cell membrane Lipids
they act as a cushion to protect organs Lipids
a diverse group of lipids that fulfill a wide variety if roles Steroids
the one form in which all other steroids are made is cholesterol
very large molecules consisting if smaller chemical subunits called amino acids proteins
give strength to nails, hair and skin surface Keratin
lend structure to bones, cartilage and teeth collagen
defend the body against bacteria Antibodies
act as catalysts for crucial chemical reactions Enzymes
permute muscle contraction Contractile proteins
carries oxygen in the blood hemoglobin
organic compounds containing an Amino group that are building blocks of proteins Amino Acids
the sum of all chemical reactions in the body is called Metabolism
the braking down of compounds and releasing energy to do so is called Catabolism
Building compounds that require energy is called Anabolism
Bonds formed to make a new compound is Synthesis
bonds that are broken to form 2 or more smaller molecules are called Decomposition
Dissociate in water Solutes
Reduces friction in the GI tract and joints Lubricant
Requires lots of energy to raise the temperature High Specific Heat
a substance that INCREASES the concentration of H+ ions in water Acid
A substance that DECREASES the concentration in water Base
Also called sugars or saccharides Carbohydrates
A single sugar carbohydrate is called Monosaccharide
Hexose or 6 carbon sugars Monosaccharide
Also called Pentose Sugar Deoxyribose
The "D" in DNA Deoxyribose
The "R" in RNA Ribose
also known as Double-sugar carbohydrates Disaccharides
Milk sugar is called Lactose
Table sugar is called Sucrose
Wheat sugar is called Maltose
Created by: Leci81
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