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Nutrition

Chapter 21 Q & A

QuestionAnswer
What are the forms of carbohydrates? Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
What is the function of carbohydrates? Primary source of energy for the body
What are the forms of lipids? Saturated fats and unsaturated fats
What is the function of lipids? Enables absorption of certain vitamins, contributes to cellular structure, and insulates and protects the body
What are monosaccharides? Simple sugars, taste sweet, absorbed through the small intestine without being broken down, and include glucose, fructose, and galactose
What are disaccharides? Simple sugars, broken down into monosaccharides during digestion, and include sucrose, lactose, and maltose
What are polysaccharides? Complex carbs, starches in vegetables, grains, potatoes, and legumes, and includes cellulose
What are saturated fats? Derived mainly from animals; solid at room temps; meat, egg yolks, and dairy; hydrogenated oils such as margarine and shortening
What are unsaturated fats? Liquid at room temp; nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils
What is trans fat? Saturated fat found in commercial baked goods and snack foods. Results when hydrogen is added to liquid vegetable shortening during food processing to make it more solid
What are the risks of trans fats? They increase the risk for heart attack and stroke
What are the forms of protein? Complete and incomplete
What are complete proteins? Foods that supply all the amino acids. These are derived mainly from animal sources such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy
What are incomplete proteins? Foods that lack 1 or more essential amino acids. These come from plant sources such as nuts, grains, and legumes
What is the function of proteins? They build tissue, bone, hair, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, skin, and nails. Also make up antibodies, hormones, hemoglobin, etc.
What are water-soluble vitamins? Absorbed in water in the small intestine then dissolved in body fluids and excreted by the kidneys. These are not stored in the body so there is only a slight risk of toxicity
What are fat-soluble vitamins? Absorbed with dietary fat, then stored in the liver and fat tissues until needed. Megadosing may lead to toxicity.
What is the function of vitamin C? A water-soluble vitamin found in citrus fruits and green vegetables, it aids in iron absorption, wound healing, synthesis of collagen, an antioxidant, and RBC formation
What is the function of vitamin B1? A water-soluble vitamin found in red meat, eggs, and legumes, its function is carb metabolism, blood formation, circulation, CNS maintenance
What is the function of vitamin B2? A water-soluble vitamin found in meat, eggs, whole grains, legumes, its function is energy metabolism, cell respiration, epithelial, eye, and mucosal tissue maintenance
What is the function of vitamin B3? A water-soluble vitamin found in meat, fish, legumes, & grains, its function is circulation, cholesterol level reduction, growth, stimulates CNS, metabolism of carbs, protein, & fat
What is the function of vitamin B6? A water-soluble vitamin found in red meat, fish, green vegetables, & whole grains, its function helps in metabolism of amino acids & unsaturated fatty acids, antibody formation, DNA & RNA synthesis
What is the function of vitamin B9? A water-soluble vitamin found in vegetables & liver, its function is synthesis of DNA, catabolism of lipids & amino acids, cell growth & reproduction, RBC formation
What is the function of vitamin B12? A water-soluble vitamin found in red meat, eggs, & milk, its function is the formation & maturation of RBCs & nerve cell maintenance
What is the function of biotin? A water-soluble vitamin found in raw egg yolks, liver, peanuts, & tomatoes, its function is necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, & the metabolism of fats & amino acids
What is the function of vitamin A? A fat-soluble vitamin found in fish oil, eggs, & green & yellow vegetables, its function is growth, night vision, & maintenance of epithelial tissue
What is the function of vitamin D? A fat-soluble vitamin found in fish oils, eggs, milk, & liver, its function is calcium & phosphorus absorption & metabolism, development of bones & teeth, & normal blood clotting
What is the function of vitamin E? A fat-soluble vitamin found in fish oil, eggs, milk, & seed oils, its function is an antioxidant, normal muscle function, fetal development, & myocardial perfusion
What is the function of vitamin K? A fat-soluble vitamin found in vegetables such as cabbage, spinach, & tomatoes, its function is essential for normal blood clotting
What is the function of calcium? A major mineral found in dairy , greens, legumes, & sardines, its function is the formation of bones & teeth, blood clotting, muscle contraction & relaxation, & nerve function
What is the function of phosphorus? A major mineral found in meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, & grains, its function is the formation of bones & teeth, cell growth & repair, & aid in acid-base balance
What is the function of magnesium? A major mineral found in meat, seafood, nuts, legumes, & grains, its function is muscle relaxation & nerve pulse transmission, & protein synthesis
What is the function of sodium? A major mineral found in table salt, meat, seafood, & milk, its function is fluid balance, nerve & muscle function, & cell remeability
What is the function of potassium? A major mineral found in potatoes, melons, citrus fruit, bananas, meat, most fruits & vegetables, its function is nerve muscle function, acid-base balance, & cardiac rhythm
What is the function of iron? A trace mineral found in liver, red meat, egg yolks, nuts, & legumes, its function is hemoglobin production
What is the function of iodine? A trace mineral found in seafood & iodized salt, its function is thyroid hormone production & physical & mental development
What is the function of selenium? A trace mineral found in grains, meat, fish, & dairy, its function is an antioxidant & immune mechanisms
What is the function of zinc? A trace mineral found in meat, seafood, & whole grains, its function is wound healing, nutrient metabolism, & carb digestion
What is the function of copper? A trace mineral found in legumes, grains, nuts, & organ meats, its function is a component of many enzymes
What is the function of fluoride? A trace mineral found in fluoridated drinking water, seafood, & seaweed, its function is the formation of bones & teeth
What is the function of manganese? A trace mineral found in greens, legumes, & grains, its function is formation of bone & activation of some enzymes
What are heat cramps? Painful muscle spasms from excessive loss of electrolytes through sweat
What is heat exhaustion? Prolonged exposure to high temperatures without adeqate fluid replacement
What are the symptoms of heat exhaustion? Dizziness, headache, muscle cramps, nausea or vomiting, & fainting
What is heat stroke? A life-threatening condition when the boy's temperature reaches 104F or higher. It requires immediate medical attention to avoid brain damge, organ failure, or death
What are the symptoms of heat stroke? Hot, dry, flushed skin; headache; rapid heart rate; muscle cramps or weakness. Seizures, hallucinations, or unconsciousness may also occur
What is hypothermia? The body's temperature falls below 95F. If the body's temperature falls below 90F, death usually occurs
What are the symptoms of hypothermia? Shivering, lack of coordination, slurred speech, confusion, & drowsiness
Created by: cbooher16