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Nutrition

Chapter 21 definitions

TermDefinition
Aerobic Process that requires oxygen
Anaerobic Process occurring without oxygen
Basal metabolic rate BMR; the amount of energy the body needs at rest
Calorie The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celcius
Carbohydrates The body's primary energy source
Complete protein Foods that supply all the essential amino acids
Essential fatty acid Fat that must be obtained through the diet
Essential nutrient Nutrients essential in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body
Ghrelin Hormone secreted by cells in the stomach that stimulates appetite
Glycolysis The breakdown of carbohydrates for energy
Incomplete protein Food that lacks 1 or more essential amino acids
Lipids Fats that act as a reservoir of excess energy
Metabolism Chemical processes occurring in cells that transform nutrients into energy or into materials the body can use or store
Mineral An inorganic element or compound needed for numerous vital functions
Nonessential amino acids Amino acids the body can synthesize, making them nonessential in the diet
Nutrients Usable food components that supply the body with chemicals necessary for energy
Vitamins Vital nutrients, obtained mostly through food and needed for metabolism
Satiety The feeling of being satisfied after eating
Catabolism Used in the metabolism of carbs and lipids; breaks down complex substances into simpler ones or into energy
Anabolism Used in protein metabolism; forms complex substances out of simpler ones
Radiation Involves the transfer of heat through the air by electromagnetic heat waves; such as standing in bright sunlight
Conduction Involves the transfer of heat between 2 materials that touch each other; such as a spoon getting hot from being in a bowl of hot soup
Evaporation Requires heat to change water into a gas; such as in sweating
Created by: cbooher16