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AP Euro Cards 1

European history study for an AP course

Pope Gregory VII (1073-1087) Reforming pope, wanted to do away with simony (selling of offices) and lay investiture (voting for church official), was challenged by HRE Emperor Henry IV and was excommunicated
Pope Alexander III (1159-1181) Known for defeating Frederick I when he tried to invade Lombardy
Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) Reforming pope, 4th Lateran Council, height of papal power, led crusades against the Humiliati (Italy) and the Albigensians/Cathars (S. France)
Inquisition Created to stop heresy by Pope Gregory IX, courts were made during this period to search out heretics with "wrong" beliefs
Magna Carte (1215) Nobles hold King John of England for ransom and make him sign this document which established common law in England and limited the power of the monarchy
Estates General Created in 1302 by King Philip IV of France, a representative court made up of three groups in society (nobility, church, laity)
Franciscans Founded by St. Francis of Assisi, Pope Innocent III accepted them as a branch of Catholicism
St. Thomas Aquinas Most popular Scholastic philosopher, author of "Summa Theologica", believed that God could be explained by studying the earth and creation
Feudalism Economic system of the High Middle Ages, land=wealth, changed with Commercial Revolution
Commercial Revolution Serfs start to pay their lords money instead of military work, credit is formed, money emerges on a small scale, this led to great urbanization with towns growing especially on the coasts
Vernacular Writing Came about in the High Middle Ages when writers began to write in their own tongue and not in Latin, led to a growth in literature now that common people could understand texts
Black Death (1347~1352) Also called the bubonic plague, highly contagious disease that brought many deaths and changes to social life in Europe
Avignon Papacy Cause of the Great Schism, started by Pope Clement V who was persuaded by King Philip IV of France to move the papacy into France, it lasted 67 years and was called the Babylonian Captivity
John Wyclifffe Labeled as a heretic and killed by the Catholic Church, his followers were called the Lollards and he was a predecessor for the Protestant Reformation
Hundred Years' War (14th-15th centuries) Fought by English and French over territorial reasons, fought on French soil, Joan of Arc was key in rallying the French troops
Nationalism A feeling of unity and pride for one's country
Renaissance "Rebirth", started in Italy, 14th-16th centuries, art focused on human figure, linear persepctive, triangles, differed in the south and the north
Humanism Attention on the classics, resurgence of language, focused on secularism (a departure from scholasticism)
Machiavelli "The Prince", influential writing on political development and government in the 16th century
Italian Wars Fought between the Italian city states and King Charles VIII of France, marks the decline of Italian power in Europe, balance of power
Concordat of Bologna (1516) A treaty between the papacy and French crown to allow France to elect its own bishops and clergy by making Catholicism the official religion, shows the decreasing power of the Church
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Monarchs of Spain, consolidated power under the crown, brought in the Inquisition to Spain, pushed out the Moors (Muslims), made Catholicism the main religion, "Catholic Kings"
Charles V The last medieval emperor, held his large territory weakly, Holy Roman Emperor during the Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther (16th century) Leader of the Protestant Reformation, condemned the Catholic church for their selling of indulgences and greed, author of the 95 Theses, translated the Bible into German
Jean Calvin (16th century) Reformer that believed in predestination, set a model for following churches by building his own in Geneva
Jesuits Order founded by Ignatius Loyola, accepted as a branch of Catholicism by Pope Paul II, part of the Counter Reformation
King Henry VIII English monarch, brought the Reformation to England, broke with the Catholic Church because the Pope refused to let him divorce his wife, established the Church of England
Augsburg Confession (1530) German princes announce their faith in Protestantism, revolt against Charles V, ended with Charles V allowing the princes to decide their region's religion
Politiques Rulers who put aside their religious beliefs for the sake of peace in their territory to hopefully strengthen their countries after the Wars of Religion
Spanish Armada (1588) Philip II of Spain sends ships to England because of stolen gold, English support of the Dutch and the French Protestants, and the killing of Mary of Scots, a humiliating defeat for the Spanish
Treaty of Westphalia Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War, stated that the German princes were free to choose Lutheranism, Calvinism, or Catholicism, recognized the United Provinces as an independent nation
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer that sailed for Spain, reached the island of Hispaniola in 1492, stirred the Europeans curiosity of the New World
Glorious Revolution (1688-9) Parliament overpowered the English crown, James II is replaced by William of Orange II and Mary, established a constitutional monarchy
Dutch East India Company (17th century) One country's company that lead to dominance in India before the English took it, allowed them to control African and American trade as well
Social Contract Theory A term used by both Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, Hobbes believed this to be unbreakable but Locke believed in the people's power over their leader, a political term was used in the Enlightenment
Created by: Supernuk