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Digestive system

Chapter 20 Q & A

What are the structures of the digestive system? Mouth, Pharynx, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
What are the accessory organs of the digestive system? Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder
What is the function of the tongue? It repositions food in the mouth during chewing
What is the function of the teeth? They break food into pieces small enough to be swallowed
What is the function of saliva? It moistens food and transforms it into a bolus. The enzyme amylase breaks down starch while lipase begins the digestion of fat
What is the function of the pharynx? It acts as a passageway for food to travel to the esophagus.
What is the function of the esophagus? It connects the pharynx to the stomach. This is where peristalsis takes place which propels food toward the stomach
What is the function of the stomach? It contracts and churns to break food into smaller particles and mix it with gastric juice. The end product is chyme
What is the function of the duodenum? It receives chyme from the stomach, pancreatic juice, & bile. Neutralizes stomach acid and pancreatic enzymes begin the task of chemical digestion
What is the function of the jejunum? This is where nutrient absorption takes place
What is the function of the large intestine? This is where absorption of large amounts of water from the waste takes place. The end result is feces which is then passed out of the body
What is the digestive function of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas? They each secrete digestive fluids or enzymes into the digestive tract at the junction of the stomach and the small intestine
What are the symptoms of a peptic ulcer? Gnawing, bloating, and heartburn
What is the cause of peptic ulcers? There is no single cause. However, H. pylori is often indicated as well as the use of NSAIDs.
What is the treatment for peptic ulcers? H. pylori ulcers can be treated with antibiotics
What are gallstones? Hard masses that form inside the gallbladder, often because of excessive cholesterol in the bile
What are the symptoms of gallstones? There may be no signs or symptoms. However, if a stone lodges within a duct, excruciating pain may occur
What is the treatment of gallstones? Surgery to remove the gallbladder or medications to dissolve the gallstones
What effects does age have on the digestive system? Peristalsis slows, the cardiac sphincter weakens, tooth loss occurs, sensations of smell & taste are diminished, poor absorption of vitamin B12, & efficiency of the liver declines
Created by: cbooher16