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Digestive system

Chapter 20 definitions

TermDefinition
Amylase Enzyme contained in saliva that breaks down starch
Appendix Tubular organ attached to the lower end of the cecum; serves as a source for immune cells
Bile Yellow-green fluid secreted by the liver that aids in digestion
Cecum Blind pouch that serves as the beginning of the large intestine
Chief cells Cells in the gastric mucosa that secrete digestive enzymes
Chyme Semi-fluid mixture consisting of particles of food mixed with digestive juices
Dentin Firm, yellowish tissue forming the bulk of the tooth
Duodenum The 1st 10" of the small intestine; the portion of intestine that performs most digestive processes
Enertic nervous system Network of nerves innervating the digestive system
Enteroendocrine cells Cells in the gastric mucosa that secrete the hormone ghrelin and gastrin
Esophagus Muscular tube connecting the pharynx to the stomach
Gallbladder Sac attached to the liver that stores and concentrates bile
Gastric pits Depressions within the gastric mucosa containing glands that secrete components of gastric juice
Gingiva Tissue surrounding the necks of teeth; the gums
Hard palate Bony structure that separates the mouth from the nasal cavity
Haustra Pouches along the length of the large intestine
Ileum The 3rd and last portion of the small intestine
Jejunum The second portion of the small intestine; location where many nutrients are absorbed
Lacteal Lymph vessel found inside the villi of the small intestine
Lipase Enzyme that digests fat
Mastication Process of chewing which begins the digestion of food
Mesentery Sheet of connective tissue that suspends the digestive organs within the abdominal cavity
Parotid gland Salivary gland located just underneath the skin anterior to the ear
Peristalsis Wave-like muscular contractions that propels food along the digestive tract
Proteases Enzymes working in the stomach and small intestine to break peptide bonds
Rugae Folds of mucosa and submucosa in the stomach
Salivary glands Glands in the oral cavity that secrete saliva
Segmentation Type of contraction in the small intestine that involves ring-like constrictions
Soft palate Structure consisting mostly of skeletal muscle that forms an arch between the mouth and nasopharynx
Digestive tract Tube that extends from the mouth to the anus; alimentary canal
Digestion Breaking down of food into a substance that cells can use
Mechanical digestion Breaking down food into smaller pieces; 1st phase of digestion
Chemical digestion Breaking down food particles into nutrients that cells can use; 2nd phase of digestion
Ascites Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
lingual frenulum Fold of mucous membrane that anchors the tongue to the floor of the mouth
Bolus Mass of moistened food that can be swallowed easily
Deciduous teeth Baby teeth that fall out between the ages of 6 & 13
Mucous cells Secrete mucus, which protects the stomach lining and keeps the stomach from digesting itself
Parietal cells Secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor to help kill microbes in swallowed food and absorb vitamin B12
Falciform ligament Separate left and right lobes of the liver and serves to anchor it to the abdominal wall
Hepatic lobules Tiny, 6-sided cylinders that fill the interior of the liver; functional units of the liver
Hepatocytes Sheets of hepatic cells that fan out from the center of the lobule
Kupffer cells Phagocytic cells that remove bacteria, worn-out RBCs, and debris from the bloodstream
Ampulla of Vater Hepatopancreatic ampulla where the bile duct merges with the duct of the pancreas
Sphincter of Oddi Hepatopancreatic sphincter that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum
Bilirubin Main bile pigment which results from the breakdown of hemoglobin
Bile salts Most important component of bilethat aid in the digestion and absorption of fat in the small intestine
Acinar cells In the pancreas, secrete digestive enzymes in an inactive form
Cholecystokinin CCK; Hormone secreted by the duodenum that causes gallbladder contraction and the release of pancreatic enzymes
Gastrin Hormone from the stomach and duodenum that triggers both gallbladder contraction and pancreatic enzyme secretion
Secretin Released by the duodenum, causes the bile and pancreatic ducts to release bicarbonate
Polysaccharides Contain many saccharide groups linked together; include starches and glycogen
Disaccharides Contain 2 saccharide groups linked together; include sucrose, lactose, maltose
Monosaccharides Contain onky 1 saccharide group; include glucose, fructose, and galactose
Emulsification Breaking fat down into small droplets; occurs in the duodenum
Bacterial flora Normal flora; over 700 species housed int he large intestine
Flatus Intestinal gas
Hemorrhoids Swollen, engorged veins in the anal canal
Created by: cbooher16