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Cells Smallest living subunits of a multicellular organism
Cell/plasma membrane Only allows certain substances to cross
Cholesterol Embedded in the membrane, decreases fluidity stabilizing the membrane
Proteins Form antigens when combined with oligosaccharides
Oligosaccharides Act as receptor sites for hormones or other compounds
Nucleus Contains chromosomes
Cytoplasm Liquid solution of dissolved minerals, gases, and other molecules
Organelles Organs of the cell
Ribosomes Made of protein and rRNA
Endoplasmic reticulum Membranous tubules that extends from the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane
Rough ER Ribosomes on the surface
Smooth ER No ribosomes on the surface
Golgi apparatus Flat membranous sacs stacked like pancakes
Mitochondria Power house of the cell
Lysosomes Contains digestive enzymes called lysozymes
Centrioles Organize spindle fibers that separate chromosomes during cell division
Cytoskeleton The supporting framework of the cell
Cilia Beat in unison causing a wave like motion to move things across the surface
Flagella Mobile threadlike projection through the cell membrane
Microvilli Folds of the cell membrane that increase surface area
Vacuoles Pinched off plasma membrane during phagocytosis and pinocytosis
Cellular transport mechanisms Mechanisms to move substances in and out of the cell
Diffusion Movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration along a concentration gradient until equilibrium is reached
Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Isotonic solution Equal concentration of solutes
Hypotonic solution Lower concentration of solutes
Hypertonic solution Higher concentration of solutes
Facilitated diffusion Diffusion of molecules through a membrane with help from proteins in the cell membrane called transporters or carrier enzymes
Filtration Substances are forced through a membrane by mechanical pressure
Active transport Energy requiring process of moving molecules against a concentration gradient
Phagocytosis Moving cell engulfs something
Pinocytosis Stationary cell engulfs something
Exocytosis When a cell releases contents outside the cell
DNA Double strand of nucleotides twisted into a double helix made up of Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
Adenine Only pairs with thymine
Guanine Only pairs with cytosine
Sequence of A, T, G, C Determines the genetic code
Genome The entire genetic code
Gene The genetic code for one protein
RNA Similar to DNA except, single-strand, has a U in place of T
MRNA Messenger RNA
TRNA Transfer RNA
RRNA Ribosomal RNA
Protein synthesis Occurs in the ribosomes
Proteins Chains of amino acids
Transcription Messenger RNA is created from instructions on the DNA
Translation TRNA attaches to the mRNA at a site on the tRNA called the anticodon which has complementary bases to the codon on the mRNA
Mitosis and meiosis Two types of cell division
Mitosis One cell divides into two identical cells both having a full set of chromosomes
Diploid number Full set of chromosomes
Stages of mitosis Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Interphase DNA replication
Prophase Chromosomes coil up, nuclear membrane disappears, centrioles move to opposite ends and extends spindle fibers to the chromosomes
Metaphase Chromosomes line up in the middle, Centromere's attach to the spindle fibers and divide
Anaphase Spindle fibers pull chromosomes to each pole
Telophase Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin, nuclear membrane reforms
Cytokinesis Cytoplasm divides and cell membrane closes off
Meiosis One cell divides into four cells each having half of the chromosomes
Meiosis in women Occurs in the ovaries
Meiosis in men Occurs in the testes
Meiosis phases Same as mitosis but all happens twice except for Interphase
Created by: Darren24