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Ch2

Chemistry of Life

TermDefinition
matter has mass and occupies space
elements pure substances
compounds chemical combination of two or more elements
atoms the smallest particle of an element
nucleus the inner core of the atom
protons positive charge
neurons neutral charge
electrons negative charge
isotope atoms that have a different number of neutrons from protons
ion atoms that have a different number of electrons from protons
atomic number number of protons, determines what the element is
atomic mass the mass of neutrons plus the mass of the protons of an atom
atomic weight the average atomic mass of atoms known in the world
molecule two or more atoms bonded together
ionic bonds electron moves from one atom to another giving each a charge
cation positive ion, has more protons than electrons
anion negative ion, has more electrons than protons
salt any molecule ionically bonded with ions other than hydrogen ions or hydroxyl ions, many kinds
polyatomic ions ions that are made up of covalently bonded molecules
covalent bonds when two or more atoms share one or more electrons
single bonds share one electron each
double bonds share two electrons each
triple bonds share three electrons each
hydrogen bonds similar to ionic bond, attraction of charged particles
metabolism the sum of all the chemical processes in the body
catabolism breaking down compounds, releases energy
anabolism building compounds, requires energy
chemical reaction change brought about by creating or breaking chemical bonds
synthesis bonds formed to make a new compound, requires energy
decomposition bonds are broken to form two or more smaller molecules, releases energy
solvent solutes dissociate in water
lubricant reduces friction in GI tract and joints
acid a substance that increases the concentrations of hydrogen ions in water
base (alkaline) a substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions in water
carbohydrates energy source; contain C, H, and O
monosaccharide single-sugar carbohydrate; glucose, fructose, galactose
deoxyribose pentose sugar, part of DNA
ribose pentose sugar, part of RNA
disaccharides double-sugar carbohydrates, linked by covalent bonds
sucrose table sugar, glucose + fructose
lactose milk sugar, glucose + galactose
maltose wheat sugar, glucose + glucose
oligosaccharides 3-20 sugars, antigens (makers on cell membranes)
polysaccharides up to millions of glucose molecules
starches glucose storage in plants
glycogen the form of glucose storage in animals, stored in liver and skeletal muscles
cellulose chain of glucose in plant cell walls, unable to digest
lipids fats, insoluble in water
true fats glycogen and 1, 2, or 3 fatty acids
monyglyceride glycerol with 1 fatty acid
diglyceride glycerol with 2 fatty acids
triglyceride glycerol with 3 fatty acids
saturated all carbons bonded to the maximum number of hydrogens, usually solid at room temp
unsaturated one or more carbons are double bonded, usually liquid at room temp
hydrogenated/trans fats unsaturated fats that are converted to saturated, longer shelf life
phospholipids diglycerides with phosphate group in the third bonding site, structural component of cell membrane
myelin insulating sheath around nerve cells
steroids many different types; estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cholesterol
cholesterol other steroids are made from this, four carbon rings with a C H tail
proteins made up of amino acid
peptide bonds bonds between AAs
polypeptide bonds chain of AAs
denature lose function, cooking an egg
nucleic acids DNA, RNA and ATP
nucleotide pentose sugar and a nitrogenous base
ATP adenosine triphosphate, basic form of energy, made during cell respiration from energy when glucose is broken down
major elements oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus make up 98.5% of body weight
lesser elements sulfur, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, and iron make up 0.8% of body weight
trace elements chromuim, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, and manganese make up 0.7% of body weight
inner core of the atom contains protons (+) and neurons (neutral)
outer part of the atom contains electrons (-), made up of layers or different energy levels
shells different energy levels or layers of the outer part of the atom
valence electrons electrons in the outermost shell
noble gases more stable because their outer shells are full
radioactive unstable radioisotopes which lead to radioactive decay
electrolytes give a solution the ability to conduct electricity, ionization
polar when H is covalently bonded to another atom it has a slightly positive charge on the end where the H is, it is then weakly attracted to negatively charged particles such as O or N
water most of our body is this; acts a solvent and a lubricant, and requires high specific heat
organic compounds contains carbon
Created by: Darren24