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Ch12

Endocrine System

TermDefinition
Endocrine system Secretes hormones
Endocrine glands Secrete directly into the bloodstream
Hormones Chemicals that bring about a change in the body
Protein-based hormones Can be long or short chains of AAs or variations of single AAs
Steroids Cholesterol derivatives
Protein hormones Also call the two messenger mechanism
Steroids Are liquid soluble therefore they diffuse through the cell membrane
Nucleus The steroid protein complex enters the _____
Cells of endocrine glands Respond to chemical changes, other hormones, or nervous system stimulation
Releasing hormones Stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete it's hormones
Inhibiting hormones Suppress hormone secretion by the anterior pituitary
Tropic hormones Stimulate other endocrine cells to release their hormones
Prolactin Stimulates milk production in the mammary glands in females
Adrenocorticotropic hormone Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids
Growth hormones Act on the entire body to promote protein synthesis, liquid and carbohydrate metabolism, and bone and skeletal muscle growth
Thyroid stimulating hormones Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone
Luteinizing hormone Stimulate ovulation and estrogen and progesterone synthesis in females and the secretion of testosterone by the testes in males
Follicle-stimulating hormone Stimulates the production of eggs in the ovaries of females and sperm in the testes of males
Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin The hormones stored by the posterior pituitary
Oxytocin Stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth
Antidiuretic hormone Acts on the kidneys to reduce urine volume and prevent dehydration
Negative feedback When the pituitary stimulates another endocrine glands to secrete it's hormone, that hormone is then sent back to the pituitary, telling it to stop the release of tropic hormone
Pituitary gland Hangs by short stock called the infundibulum from the hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary Made of glandular tissue
Posterior pituitary Extends from the nerve tissue of the hypothalamus
Antidiuretic hormone Helps maintain blood pressure
Pineal gland Releases melatonin
Thymus gland Located anterior and bilateral to the trachea just inferior to the larynx
T3 Contains three iodine atoms
T4 Contains four iodine atoms
Calcitonin Maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphate by decreasing reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from the bones to the blood thus lowering blood levels
Parathyroid gland To glands on the posterior of each lobe of the thyroid gland
Parathyroid hormone Increases blood calcium and phosphate
Adrenal gland Located on the top of each kidney
Norepinephrine Causes vasoconstruction in the skin, Viscera, and skeletal muscles to quickly raise blood pressure
Epinephrine Increases heart rate and force of contraction
Adrenal cortex Secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, sex hormones
Sex hormones Estrogen for females, androgens for males
Aldosterone The most abundant mineralocorticoid, increases blood volume and blood pressure
Cortisol Increases glucogenesis from lipids and excess AAs
Anti-inflammatory Blocks histamine
Pancreas Located mainly in the left upper quadrant, both an endocrine and exocrine gland
Alpha cells Produce Glucagon
Beta cells Produce insulin
Delta cells Somatostatin
Glucagon Stimulates liver to begin Glycogenolysis and uses lipids and AAs for energy by glucogenesis
Insulin Decreases blood sugar by increasing permeability of cells to glucose and stimulating glycogenesis in the liver and muscles
Prostaglandins Made in virtually all cells from phospholipids of their cell membranes
Local action Does not circulate in the blood
Created by: Darren24