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Urinary system

Chapter 18 Q & A

What are the structures of the urinary system? Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Where are the kidneys located? Against the posterior abdominal wall underneath the 12th rib
Where are the ureters located? Connecting to the renal pelvis of each kidney to the bladder
Where is the urinary bladder located? Sits behind the symphysis pubis & below the peritoneal membrane. In women, it is in front of the vagina and uterus. In men, it rests on top of the prostate gland
Where is the urethra located? In women, it exits the body just in front of the vaginal orifice. In men, it passes thru the center of the prostate gland, curves around to enter the penis, then exits the body thru the tip of the penis
What is the structure of the kidneys? Each is about 4" long, 2" wide, 1" thick; surrounded by a tough, fibrous capsule; interior consists of the renal cortex & renal medulla
What is the function of the kidney? Cleanse the blood of toxic substances; remove potential poisons; adjust the water content of blood; tweak the levels of Na+ & K+; adjust the pH level; play a role in regulation of BP & production of RBCs
What is the 1st process of urine formation? Glomerular filtration occurs when urine is created from blood plasma in the glomerulus as water and small solutes filter out of the blood & into the surrounding space of Bowman's capsule
What is the 2nd process of urine formation? Tubular reabsorption is the process whereby chemicals are removedfrom filtrate in the renal tubules and returned to the blood
What is the 3rd process of urine formation? Tubular secretion is the process whereby chemicals are added to the filtrate in the renal tubules
How does aldosterone effect blood volume and pressure? Prompts the distal convoluted tubule to absorb more Na+ and secrete more K+. Blood volume and pressure both rise
How does ANP effect blood volume and pressure? It inhibits the secretion of aldosterone and ADH, causing the distal convoluted tubule to excrete more NaCl and water. Both blood volume and pressure fall
How does ADH effect blood volume and pressure? It causes the cells of the distal and collecting tubules to become more permeable to water. Urine volume falls and both blood volume and pressure rise
How does PTH effect blood volume and pressure? It prompts the renal tubules to reabsorb more calcium & excrete more phosphate. It has no effect on blood pressure or volume
What is the structure and function of the ureters? They are slender, muscular tubes connecting the renal pelvis of each kidney with the bladder. Each is about 25cm long and very narrow
What is the structure and function of the urinary bladder? A collapsible, muscular sac, it sits behind the symphysis pubis and below the peritoneal membrane. Urine is retained here until ready to be voided
What is the structure and function of the urethra? It is a small tube that conveys urine away from the bladder and out of the body. In women, it is about 3cm long. In men, it measures about 20cm.
What is the 1st step in the process of urination? When the bladder contains 200ml or more, stretch receptors in the bladder wall send impulses to the sacral region of the spinal cord & the micturition center of the pons
What is the 2nd step in the process of urination? The spinal cord sends motor impulses to the bladder wall to contract and to the internal sphincter to relax. Involuntary voiding occurs unless the brain overrides it.
What is the 3rd step in the process of urination? The pons evaluates whether the time is appropriate to urinate
What is the 4th step in the process of urination? If the time is appropriate to urinate, the bladder wall contracts, the external sphincter relaxes and voluntary urination occurs
How can hypertension cause kidney damage? It pushes the normally high glomerular pressure even higher. It can also cause athrosclerosis in blood vessels, decreasing blood flow to the kidneys, leading to further damage
How can diuretics be useful? They increase urine volume. This leads to decreased blood volume and pressure. Useful in the treatment of hypertension and CHF
What are kidney stones? Result when minerals crystallize in the renal pelvis. The ureter contracts violently trying to dislodge it, causing excruciating pain. Urine may back up into the kidney causing hydronephrosis. Stones are often treated with lithotripsy
What is renal insufficiency? Kidney failure that results when an extensive number of nephrons have been destroyed through disease or injury
What is acute renal failure? This is often a result of an infection, drugs, or an injury. Normal kidney function may occur after treatment
What is chronic renal insufficiency? Developing over years, typically, a disease gradually destroys the nephrons. The kidneys can no longer effectively clear blood plasma of waste. Damage is irreversible
What is hemodialysis? Treatment for kidney failure where blood is pumped from the patient's radial artery to a dialysis machine
What is peritoneal dialysis? Treatment for kidney failure where dialysis fluid is introduced into the peritoneal cavity through a catheter
Created by: cbooher16



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