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Urinary system

Chapter 18 definitions

TermDefinition
Excretion Process of eliminating wastes from the body
Renal cortex Forms the outer region of the kidney
Renal medulla Forms the inner region of the kidney
Renal pyramids Cone-shaped sections of the renal medulla that consists of tubules for transporting urine away from the cortex
Renal papilla Point of the renal medulla that faces the hilum
Minor calyx Cup that collects urine leaving the renal papilla
Major calyx Where 2 or 3 minor calyces join together
Renal pelvis Receives urine from the major calyces
Renal artery Branches off the abdominal aorta and brings blood to the kidney
Renal vein Empties blood leaving the kidney into the inferior vena cava
Nephrons Filtration units of the kidney; extend between the cortex and the medulla; well supplied with blood
Afferent arterioles Arising from smaller arteries, supplies blood to 1 nephron
Glomerulus Cluster of capillaries enclosed by Bowman's capsule
Efferent arteriole Where blood leaves the glomerulus
Peritubular capillaries Network of capillaries around the renal tubules; pick up water and solutes reabsorbed by the renal tubules
Renal corpuscle Beginning of the nephron; consists of a glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
Renal tubule Series of tube-like structures leading away from the glomerulus
Collecting duct Receives drainage from the distal convoluted tubules of several different nephons
GFR Glomerular filtration rate; the amount of fluid filtered by both kidneys; about 180 liters each day
Proteinuria Abnormal presence of protein in the urine
Aldosterone Hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that causes the distal convoluted tubule to retain Na+, which leads to increased retention of water. Blood volume increases and blood pressure rises
ANP Atrial natriuretic peptide; hormone secreted by the atria of the heartwhich inhibits secretion of aldosterone and antidiuretic; reduces blood volume and pressure
ADH Antidiuretic hormone; secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, causes the distal and collecting tubes to be more permeable to H2O; urine volume falls, blood pressure and volume increase
PTH Parathyroid hormone; Secreted by the parathyroid glands; prompts the renal tubules to reabsorb more calcium and excrete more phosphate
Urinalysis Examination of the characteristics of urine
Oliguria Urine output of less than 400ml/day; insufficient for clearing waste products from the body
Detrusor muscle Wall of the bladder consisting of 3 layers of smooth muscle
Rugae Folds of mucous transitional epithelium lining the bladder
Trigone Triangular shaped, smooth area on the floor of the bladder; commonly attacked by infections
Internal urethral sphincter Ring of smooth muscle where the urethra leaves the bladder; contracts involuntarily to retain urine in the bladder
External urinary sphincter Where the urethra passes thru the pelvic floor; consists of skeletal muscle under voluntary control
External urinary meatus The opening of the urethra leading to the outside of the body
Angiotensin Plasma protein produced when renin is released from the kidney
Angiotensin II Stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone
Diuresis Secretion of large amounts of urine
Hilum Concave notch on the medial side of the kidney; where blood vessels, the ureters, and nerves enter and leave the kidney
Renin Enzyme released by the kidneys in response to a drop in blood pressure that causes the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin I
Specific gravity Measurement that indicates the amount of solid matter in a liquid
Created by: cbooher16