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Ch11

Sense Organs

TermDefinition
Sensory organs Provide us with information about our surroundings and our internal activity
Receptors Detect stimuli and generate impulses
Sensory tracts Functionally related bundles of fibers in the white matter of the spinal cord or brain
Sensory area Interpret sensory input
Chemoreceptors React to chemicals
Mechanoreceptors Respond to pressure stretch or vibration, Physical movement
Thermoreceptors Respond to temperature
Nociceptors Detect tissue damage and give the sense of pain
Photoreceptors Detect light
Projection The perception of sensation in any given area
Intensity Determined by the number of receptors stimulated and the amount of stimulation in each
Adaptation Becoming less aware of continuing stimulation
Contrast Effect of the previous or simultaneous sensation on a current sensation
Fast fibers Sharp stabbing pain like when you have an injury
Slow fibers Dull achy pain
Referred pain Pain from a visceral organ felt in a cutaneous area
Pain Detected by nociceptors
Temperature Detected by free nerve endings located in the skin
Touch Specialized nerve endings most of which are mechanoreceptors, Sense pressure and stretch
Taste Results when chemicals come in contact with taste buds
Taste buds Made of receptors called gustatory cells
Olfaction Smell
Olfactory receptors Detect vaporized chemicals in the upper nasal cavity
Outer ear Includes the auricle and ear canal
Auricle Funnels sound into ear canal
Ear canal External acoustic meatus lined with ceruminous and sebaceous glands ends at the eardrum
Middle ear Air filled cavities that contains the ossicles and is drained by the eustachian tubes
Eardrum Vibrates with sound waves and transfers energy to ossicles
Auditory ossicles Transfers and amplifies sound to the oval window of the inner ear
Eustachian tube Equalizes pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane
Otitis media Middle ear infection
Inner ear Cavity known as the bony labyrinth in the temporal bone
Membranous labyrinth Lines the inside of the bony Labyrinth
Perilymph Fluid between bone and membranous labyrinth
Endolymph Fluid within the membranous labyrinth
Cochlea Snail shaped structure for hearing
Cochlear duct Contains the organ of corti
Organ of corti AKA Spiral organ
Tectorial membrane Presses against the hair cells to trigger depolarization
Round window Bulges out to relieve pressure when the oval window is depressed
Balance AKA Equilibrium
Vestibular Apparatus Includes the utricle and saccule
Semicircular canals Responsible for dynamic equilibrium
Ampulla Located at the base of each semicircular Canal
Eyelids Protects lubricates and cleans the eye
Eyebrows Enhances facial expressions aiding in nonverbal communication
Conjunctiva Transparent mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and covers the anterior surface of the eyeball
Palpebral fissure The opening between the lids
Lacrimal punctum Tiny pores through which tears drain into the lacrimal canal and the nasolacrimal duct
Lacrimal gland Produces tears
Nasolacrimal duct Carries tears into the nasal cavity
Fibrous tunic Contains the sclera and the cornea
Sclera White part of The eye
Cornea Transparent portion of the eye
Vascular tunic Includes choroid layer ciliary body and the iris
Choroid layer Absorbs light in the eye to prevent glare
Ciliary body Changes the shape of the lens so we can focus
Iris Colored part of the eye
Pupil The opening in the iris
Dilation Contraction of the radio fibers, let's more light in
Constriction Contraction of the circular fibers, blocks Light when bright
Retina The inner layer of the eye, contains visual receptors – rods and cones
Rods Detect all wavelengths of visible light
Cones Detect colors
Optic disc Opening where the optic nerve exits The eye
Posterior cavity of the eye Between the lens and retina
Anterior cavity Between the lens and cornea
Physiology of vision Light is focused on the retina, receptors generate impulses, visual areas of the brain interpret
Aqueous humor Fills the anterior cavity
Reflection Bending of light rays
Convergence Lines up the visual axis of each eye towards the object so that the light rays fall on the corresponding spots on each retina
Visual acuity The sharpness of visual perception
Intrinsic eye muscles Muscles that constrict and dilate the pupil
Pupillary constrictor Encircles the pupil, narrows the pupil to admit less light
Pupillary dilator Widens the pupils to admit more light
Accommodation When the curvature of the lens changes to allow the eye to focus on a near object
Photopupillary reflex When pupils constrict automatically when exposed to bright light
Sensory pathways Include the receptors, sensory neurons, sensory tracts, sensory area
Cerebral cortex Sensory area is usually found in the
Chemoreceptors React to odors, tastes, blood chemistry, etc.
Proprioceptors The type of mechanoreceptors in muscles and joints
Sound Mechanoreceptors can also detect _____
Phantom pain Perception of pain in an area that doesn't exist
Cerebral cortex Projection is "actually" felt in the _____
Neuron Each receptor is attached to a _____ that goes to a specific part of the brain from a specific part of the body
Stimulation Receptors generate fewer impulses with continued _____
Fast fibers Abundant in the skin and mucous membranes
Slow fibers In deep body organs
Pressure The sense of touch detects touch and _____
Taste buds Type of taste receptors
Taste cells Taste buds are also called _____
Chemoreceptors Detect chemicals in food dissolved in saliva
Papillae Bumps on the tongue
Vallate, foliate, filiform, fungiform The four types of papillae
Outer ear, middle ear, inner ear The three areas of the ear
Auricle Elastic cartilage covered with skin
Tympanic membrane Another name for the eardrum
Eardrum Separates the middle ear from the outer ear
Malleus, incus, stapes The three parts of the auditory ossicles
Mallet/hammer Malleus resembles a _____
Anvil Incus resembles an _____
Stirrup Stapes resembles
Auditory tubes Another name for eustachian tubes
Nasopharynx Eustachian tubes extend from the middle ear to the_____
Air Eustachian tubes permit _____ to enter or leave
Elevation Eustachian tubes can plug and cause pressure in ere when changing _____
Three The cochlea is partitioned into _____ fluid filled canals
Organ of corti The hearing sense organ
Vestibule Utricle and saccule are membranous sacs in the _____
Semicircular canals Three fluid filled membranous ovals oriented in different
Palpebrae Another term for eyelids
Skeletal muscles Eyelids are controlled by _____
Dust Eyelashes prevent
Spreads Lacrimal ducts released tears and blinking _____ them
NaCl Tears are 1%
Isozymes Tears contain
Eyeball Within the orbit formed by lacrimal, maxillary, zygomatic, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones
Six ___ Extrinsic muscles move the eye
Outer layer, middle layer, ciliary body The three layers of the eye
Outer layer of the eye Includes the Scalera and the cornea
Middle layer of the eye Includes choroid layer, ciliary body, and the iris
Ciliary body Circular muscle that surrounds and is connected to the lens by suspensory ligaments
Anterior The iris is _____ to the lens
Melanin Iris gets its color from _____
Blind spot Area in which there are no visual receptors
Vitreous chamber Another term for the posterior cavity of the eye
Created by: Darren24