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Chapter 12

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system secretes hormones.
The endocrine system works with the ______ _______ to control our entire body. nervous system
Endocrine glands secrete directly into the bloodstream (via the interstitial space)
Endocrine glands do not have ducts.
Hormones are chemicals that bring about a change in the body.
Hormones have specific effects on certain structures called target organs or target tissues.
Hormones may affect several targets such as adrenaline.
There are two basic types of chemistry hormones. Protein-based and steriod.
Protein-based can be long or short chains of amino acids or variations of single amino acids.
Steroids are cholesterol derivatives. Examples Cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone.
Hormones bond to receptors on target cells. The receptors can be found in the membrane, cytoplasm, or nucleus.
Protein hormones are two messenger mechanism. The messengers stimulate a response.
The first messenger is the protein hormones bond to ________ receptors on the ___________ because they can't penetrate the cell membrane. surface, membrane.
The second messenger __________ inside the cell. activates
Protein hormones causes a response specific to that cell based on enzymes within the cell. Examples are changes in membrane permeability to specific substances, increase in translation, activation of other enzymes, secretion of cellular products.
Steroids are lipis soluble therefore they _________ through the cell membrane. diffuse
Steroid hormones then combine with receptors in the cytoplasm.
The steroid-protein complex enters the nucleus. Then it activates specific genes to initiate transcription and then translation.
Cells of the endocrine glands respond to chemical changes, other __________, or _____ ______ stimulation. hormones, nervous system.
Most hormones use negative feedback once a hormone brings about its affect, the hormones is inhibited from being release.
Some hormones are controlled by releasing hormones. It is released to cause other hormones to be released. And anterior pituitary hormones are released this way.
Antagonistic pairs some hormones have an antagonistic pair that affects tissues in an opposite way.
Pituitary gland also known as hypophysis
Pituitary gland hangs by a short stalk called the infundibulum from the hypothalamus.
Pituitary gland is enclosed in the sella turcica in the ________ bone. sphenoid.
Pituitary gland regulates many body functions and is divided into 2 parts the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary.
Anterior pituitary also known as adenohypophysis (pituitary gland)
anterior pituitary is made of grandular tissue.
Adenohypophysis is regulated by releaseing hormones from the hypothalamus. It is secreted through the hypophyseal portal system.
Growth hormone also known as GH or somatropin (body development)
Growth hormone promotes growth by various means including increasing the cells ability to produce proteins for building tissue.
Thyroid stimulating also known as TSH or thyrotropin (thyroid development)
Thyroid stimulating stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete it's hormones.
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone also know as ACTH
Adrenocorticotrophic stimulates release of hormones from the adrenal cortex.
Prolactin initiates and maintains milk production.
Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the growth of the ovarian follicle in women and sperm production in men.
Follicle stimulating hormone also known as FSH
Luteining hormone also known as LH
Luteining hormone stimulates the follicle to ovulate in women and the testes to secrete testosterone in men.
Posterior pituitary also known as neurohypophysis
Neurohypophysis extends from the nerve tissue of the hypothalamus.
Posterior pituitary has only have 2 hormones Antidiuretic hormone and Oxytocin.
Antidiuretic hormone also known as ADH or vasopressin
ADH/Vasopressin helps maintain BP.
Antidiuretic hormone decreases urine formation ans sweating and is release stimulated by decrease water concentration in the blood (dehydration)
The hypothalamus transmits nerve impulses through the ______________________ to the posterior pituitary to inccrease ADH secretion. hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
During major blood loss ADH is released in large amounts and causes vasocontriction.
Alcohol intake ________ ADH secretion.Thirst and dizziness result and are called "Hangover". decrease
Oxytocin stinulates uterine contraction as the cervix is stretched it trigger the hypothalamus. It stimulates more contractions. It is a positive feedback (giving birth)
Infant suckling stimulates the hypothalamus which triggers oxytocin release from the hypothalamus which triggers the oxytocin from the pituitary which triggers milk release or let-down. (prolactin)
Pineal gland releases melatonin.
Pineal gland is stimulated by darkness and it creates sleepiness.
Thymus gland secretes thymosin and thymopoietin that develops the immune system by inducing immune cell production.
Thymus gland and hormones that developS immune cells.
Thyroid gland has structural units of the thyroid are called thyroid follicles.
Thyroid follicles produces T3 and T4
T3 triiodothyronine contains 2 iodine atoms.
T4 thyroxine contains 4 iodine atoms.
T3 and T4 increases energy production and protein synthesis.
T3 and T4 release is stimulated by TSH from the anterior pituitary.
Calcitonin maintains normal blood levels of calcium and phosphate by decreasing reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from the bones to the blood, lowering th eblood levels.
Calcitonin is stimulated by hypercalcemia (High Blood Calcium)
Parathyroid hormone also known as PTH
Parathyroid hormone is an antagonist to calcitonin, it _________ clood calcium and phosphate. increases.
Parathyroid hormone targets the bones, small intestine, and kidneys. It ___________ demineralization of bone and Ca++ absorption from food. increases
Parathyroid hormone is stimulated by hypocalcemia (low blood calcium)
Adrenal glands also known as Suprarenal glands.
Adrenal glands are divided into 2 parts cortex and medulla.
Adrenal medulla its secretion are said to be parasympathetic.
Adrenal medulla mimic (& prolong) the effects of the sympathetic nerous system.
Adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine; during stressful situations.
Norepinephrine also known as noradrenalin
Norepinephrine is release in small amounts and causes vasoconstriction in the skin, viscera, and skeletal muscle to quickly raise BP.
Epinephrine also known as adrenalin.
Epinephrine secretes in large amount and it increases ____ and _______ of contraction. HR, force
Epinepherine vasoconstriction in skin and viscera.
Epinephrine vasodilation in skeletal muscles.
Epinephrine dialates bronchioles.
Epinephrine decreases peristalsis.
Epinephrine stimulates glycogenolysis and glucogenesis from lipids.
Epinephrine increases cell respiration.
Epinephrine is stronger than SNS.
Adrenal Cortex secretes 3 types of steroid hormones Mineralocorticoids, gluccorticoids, and sex hormones.
Sex hormones are produces in small amounts.
Sex hormones in females are called estrogen.
sex hormones in males are called androgen.
Aldosterone is the most abundant mineralocorticoid.
Aldosterone primarily targets the kidneys to increase blood volume and BP.
Cortisol is gluccocorticoid that increases glycogeneis from lipids and excess aminoacids.It conserves glucose foruse by the brain.
Anti-inflammatory blocks histamine.
Histamine increases capillary _________ and allows lysozymes to spread. permeability.
Regulation is released during times of physical or psychological stress.
ACTH from the anterior pituitary... CRH increases-ACTH increases-Cortisol.
Pancreas is both exocrine and endocrine gland.
Pancreas funstional units are islets of langerhans or pancreatic islets that are made up of 3 types of cells.
The 3 pancreatic islets cells are Alpha, beta, and delta.
Alpha cells produce glucagon.
Beta cells produce insulin.
Delta cells somatostatin-inhibits release of glucagon and insulin.
Glucagon stimulates liver to begin _________ and use lipids and amino acids for energy by glucogenesis. glycogenolysis
Insulin _________ blood sugar by increasing permeability of cells to glucose and stimulating ___________ in the liver and muscles. decrease, glycogenesis
The _____, _________, and _______ do not need insulin to absorb glucose. brain, liver, kidneys
Prostaglandins are made virtually all cells from ____________ of their cell membranes. phospolipids.
Prostaglandins local action do not circulate in the blood.
Created by: nmartinez06