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Chapter 11

Sense Organs

Sensory Organs provides us with information about our surroundings and our internal activity.
The 4 sensory pathways are Receptor, Sensory neuron, sensory tracts, and sensory area.
The receptor detects stimuli and genrate impulses.
The receptors sepecific types for each type of stimuli examples are pressure, temperature, pain, light, etc.
Sensory tracts functionally related bundles of fibers in the white matter of the spinal cord or brain.
Sensory areaa usually in the cerebral cortex and interpret sensory input.
There are 5 classification of receptors which are Chemorecptor, mechanoreceptor, thermoreceptors, nociceptors, and photo receptors.
Chemoreceptors reacts to chemicals. For example, odors, taste, blood chemistry, etc.
Mechanoreceptors responds to pressure,stretch, or vibration. For example, physical movement. Also, detects sounds.
Proprioceptors are a type of mechanoreceptor in muscles and joints.
Thermoreceptors responds to temperature.
Nociceptors detect tissue damage and give the sense of pain.
Photoreceptors detect light.
There are 5 characteristics of sensations which are Type, projection, intensity, adaptation, and contrast.
Sensation: Type is sensory receptors only respond to one type of stimulus.
Projection is the preception of sensation in any given area.
Each receptor is attached to a neuron that goes to a specific part of the brain from a specific part of the body this is how the brain knows were the sensation comes from.
Phantom pain perception of pain in an area that doesn't exist.
Intensity determined by the number of receptors stimulated and the amount of stimulation in each.
Adaptation is becoming _______ aware of the continuing stimulation. less
In adaptation, receptors generate _______ impulses with continued stimulation. fewer
Examples of adaptation are "getting used to" hot shower, cool pool, hot tub, wrist watch.
Contrast effects of a previous or simultaneous sensation on a current sensation.
An example of contrast is cold pool on a hot day will feel cooler that it actually is.
The 3 types of general senses are Pain, temperature, and Touch.
Pain is detected by nociceptors which is free nerve endings.
Fast fibers is an abundant in the skin and the mucous membrane.
Fast fiber pain example is sharp stabbing pain; like when you have an injury.
Slow fibers are in deep body organs.
Slow fiber pain example is dull achy.
Referred pain is pain from the visceral organ felt in a cutaneous area.
Temperature can be detected by nere free endings.
Temperature is located in the ______. skin.
Temperature pain can become painful at _________ ______________. extreme temperatures.
Touch is encapsulated nerve endings that detects touch and pressure.
Sensitivity is determined by the _____________ of receptors present. number.
The 2 special senses are taste and smell.
Taste also known as gustation.
The receptor in taste are called taste buds.
Taste buds are made of receptors called gustatory cells.
Gustatory cells also know as taste cells.
Chemoreceptor detects ___________ in food dissolved in saliva. chemicals.
Bumps on the tongue are called papillae.
There are 4 types of papillae: vallate, foliate, filiform, and fungiform.
Vallate is located back of the tongue.
Foliate are fold in the back side.
Filiform is the white formation in your tongue and this does NOT have any taste buds.
Fungiform looks like a mushroom.
Taste is enhance by smell.
Smell is also known as Olfaction.
Olfactory receptors are Chemoreceptors.
Chemorecptors detects vaporized chemicals in the upper nasal cavity.
Smell helps us ________ our food. taste.
There are 3 areas of the ear. Outer ear, Middle ear, and Inner ear.
The ear contains receptors for hearing and equilibrium found in the inner ear.
The outer ear includes the auricle and ear canal.
Auricle also known as pinna
Auricle is an elastic cartilage covered with skin and funnels sound into the ear canal.
Ear Canal is an external acoutic meatus, and it is lined with ceruminous and sebaceous glands. It ends at the eardrum.
Middle ear is ____ filled cavity that contaims the ossicles and is drained by the eustachian tubes. air
Eardrum also known as tympanic membrane
tympanic membrane seperates the middle ear from the outer ear.
the eardrum vibrates with sound waves and transfers energy to ossicles.
there are 3 types of auditory ossciles. Malleus, Incus, and stapes.
Malleus means mallet or hammer.
Incus is anvil.
Stapes looks like a stirrup.
Stapes transfers and amplifies sound to the ______ ________ of the inner ear. oval window.
Eustachian tubes also known as auditory tubes.
Auditory tubes extends from the middle ear to the nasopharynx.
Eustachian tubes permits _____ to enter and leave. air.
Auditory tubes can plug and cause ________ in an ear ehen changing elevation. pressure.
Otitis media Middle ear infection (more common on younder children)
Inner ear cavity called the bony labyrinth in the temporal bone.
The inner ear contains the cochlea and vestibule.
The cochlea is for hearing.
The vestibule is for semicircular canals for equilibrium.
Perilymph is fluid between bone and membranous labyrinth.
Endolymph is fluid within the membnranous labyrinth.
Cochlea is a ____-_______ structure for hearing. snail-shaped.
Cochlea duct contains the organ of Corti also known as spiral organ.
The spinal organ receptors called _______ that have specialized MIOCROVILLI projections sterocilla. (not actually hair). hair cells
The haircell microvilli projections transmit to the _____ _______ branch of the CN 8. Cochlear VIII
Tectorial membrane overhangs the haircells and presses against the hair cell to trigger depolarization.
How we interpret hearing is by vibrations caused by sound waves ------ ear canal, tympanic membrane, malleus, incus, stapes, oval window, perilymph & endolymph in the cochlea, hair cells in the organ of corti, CN 8, and temporal lobes.
Round Window is a membrane covered end of the cochlear duct just below the oval window.
Round window bulges out to relieve pressure when the oval window is depressed. ( Sad :( )
Balance also know as equilibrium.
Inner ear balance impulses is carried by ____________ _________ of CN 8 dto the cerebellum, midbrain, and temporal lobes. vestibular portion.
Vestibule also known as vestibule apparatus.
Vestibule includes the utricle and saccule.
Membranous sacs in the vestibule is responsible for ________ equilibrium when at rest. static (still)
Vestibule hair cells detects movement of otoliths.
Semicirculars canals is responsible for dynamic equilibrium while _____. moving. (starting, stopping, accelerating, decelerating, and change in direction.
Ampulla is at the base of each semicircular canal.
Ampulla hairs cells detect movement of _______ in the canal by bending. endolymph.
Eyelids also known as palpebrae
Eyelids are controlled by the skeletal system.
Eyelids are used for protection, lubrication and cleaning. Eyelashes prevents dust.
Conjunctiva is a think membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the sclera. (white part)
Conjunctivitis pink eye.
Lacrimal glands produces tears.
tear exits in 2 small openings (puncta lacrimalia) in the medial of the corner eye. Lacrimal Canal, Lacrimal Sac (in the lacrimal bone) Nasolacrimal duct (nasal cavity; crying makes nose run)
Outer layer of the eye also known as fibrous tunic.
Outer layer of the eye includes the scalera and Cornea.
Sclera is the white part and its the thickest.
Cornea is the transparent portion, has no capillaries, and first part of the pathway of light as it is refracted (bent) into the eye.
Middle layer also known as vascular tunic.
Middle layer includes the choroid layer, ciliary body and the iris.
Choroid layer contains most of the blood vessels of the eye and it is colored by a dark pigment made from melanin.
Choroid layer absorbs light in the eye to prevent glare.
Ciliary body also known as ciliary muscle.
Ciliary body is a circular muscle that surrounds and is connected to the lens by suspensory ligaments and it changes the shape of the lens so we can focus.
Iris is the ______ part of the eye. colored
Pupil is the opening of the eye.
Pupil dilation is the contraction of the radial fibers (sympathetic). It lets more light in, in darkness.
Pupil Constriction is the contraction of the circular fibers (parasympathetic) It blocks light when bright.
Retina is the inner layer and lines the posterior 2/3 of the eye.
Retina contains visual receptors rods and cones.
Rods detect all wave lengths of the visible light and most abundant toward the periphery of the retina.
Cones detect colors in different wavelengths of visible light and is most abundant in the conter os the retina mainly in the Macula Lutea directly behind the lens.
Fovea Centralis (central indentation) is a small depression in the macula that contains only cones and is the area for best color vision.
Optic Disc is an opening where the optic nerve exits the eye.
Blind spot is no visual recepters there.
Posterior cavity of the eyeball also known as vitreous chamber and it is between the lens and retina.
Posterior cavity of the eyeball is large.
Posterior cavity of the eyeball contains the vitreous humor also known as vitreous body.
The vitreous Humor is a semisolid substance (like jello) to keep the retina in place.
Anterior cavity of the eyeball is between the lens and cornea.
Anterior Chamber is between the iris and cornea.
Posterior Chamber is between the iris and lens.
Anterior cavity of the eyeball contains aqueous humor.
Aqueous humor is formed by filtration from the capillaries in the cillary body, then reabsorbed by the canal of Schlemm.
Canal of Schlemm also known as scleral venous sinus.
Physiology of vision is when light is focused on the retina, receptors generate impulses, visual areas of the brain interpret.
Refraction is bending of light rays as they pass through the eye.
Lens are adjustable part of the refractory systens and focuses the image on the retina.
Lens at rest _________ ligament pull lens tight (flattening the lens) suspensory.
When focusing (accomodation) on near objects the ciliary muscle contracts (makes a smaller circle) bringing the ciliary process closer to the lens thus allowing the lens to become more _________ convex.
When light hits the retina rods the chemical rhodopsin breaks down and causes a nerve impulse, any wavelength triggers it, and rhodopsin is the resynthasized (vitamin A).
When light hits the retina cones is similar reaction to rods, it requires specific wavelengths to colors red, green, blue.
Binocular vision (2 eyes) allows for depth perception and it requires eyes to converge to eliminate double vision.
Created by: nmartinez06



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