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Chapter 9

Muscular System

Muscular System includes the skeletal muscles and accessory structures.
Musculare system provides mobility, movement, and it produces heat.
The muscular system includes the skeletal muscles not the cardiac or smooth muscle.
Each muscular structure is made up of thousands of individual muscle cell.
Muscle cell also known as fibers.
Myofibrils are fibers of the muscle cell that are bound together within the cell membrane and a layer called endomysium.
fibers are bundled into fascicles.
Fascicles are surrounded by perimysium.
Fascicles are bundled into the muscle surrounded by the epimysium and the deep fascia.
Muscles are specialized for contraction.
Fibers _______ to produce movement. shorten.
Tendons anchor muscle to bone and other muscles
Tendons are made of dense fiborous connective tissue.
Deep fascia is what covers the muscle.
Tendon merges with the periosteum to anchor to the bone.
What are the two muscle fiber anatomy? Sacrolemma and Sacroplasm.
Sacrolemma is a special name for the cell membrane of a muscle cell.
Sacroplasm is a special name for the cytoplasm of th emuscle cell.
Sacroplasm is filled iwth myofibrils and it stores glycogen (engergy) and oxygen (breakdown).
Sacroplasm contains sacromeres, the contractile units in the muscle fiber and it is bundles into groups called myofilaments.
Myofilaments are made of actin and myosin.
There are 6 parts of the anatony of a sacromere. Z-line, Actin, Myosin, Titin, and Troponin & Tropomyosin.
Z-line also known as Z disc.
Z-disc is a protein backbone that anchors actin filaments.
Z-disc forms the end boundaries of the sacromeres.
Actin also known as thin filaments.
Actin thin contractile protein that interacts with myosin.
Myosin also known as thick filaments.
Myosin has thicker contractile proteins.
Titin proteins that anchors myosin to the Z-line.
Actin forms a _____________ with myosin which shortens the sacromere. crossbridge.
Troponin & Tropomyosin inhibits proteins that prevent contraction when relaxed.
Troponin & Tropomyosin is attach to actin and blocks __________ from forming a cross bridge. Myosin.
Neuromuscular Junction is a motor nerve ending at each muscle fiber. And it is one per fiber.
Axon Termina also known as Motor End Plate
Motor End Plate also known as Synaptic Knob.
Axon Termina has an elarge end of the motor neuron and it contains sacs of the neurotransmitter Acetycholine (ACh)
Synapse also known as synaptic cleft.
Synapse is the junction between the ____________ and the ___________ _____________. axon terminal and muscle fiber sarcolemma.
Acetycholine is release across the synapse is called exocytosis.
Sarcolemma is the cell membrane of the muscle fiber.
Abbreviation for Acetycholine ACh
ACh attached ot the _____________ in the sacrolemma. receptors.
ACh causes ______________ impulses in the sacrolemma electrical.
Electrical signals travels through the sarcolemma.
Cholinesterase _______________ ACh. deactivates.
T-tubules tubes that allow signals to travel into the cell.
Sacroplasmic reticulum ER of the muscle cell and stores Calcium ions.
Contraction Calcium is released from the sacroplasmic reticulum binds to troponin and tropomyosin and actin is exposed.
Contraction causes actin filaments to pull against mysoin filaments called the sliding filament mechanism.
In contraction the brain recruits higher numbers of _________ based on need. fibers.
Parts of the muscle function are Origin, Belly, Insertion, Action, and Heads.
Origin is where the muscles originate and usually the more _____________ of the two ends. stationary.
Belly is the thick middle part of the muscle.
Insertion is the opposite of the origin. And is across at least one joint from the origin.
Insertion moves toward the origin and shortens the muscle, this determines Action.
Heads some muscles have more that one belly that we call heads.
There are 5 muscle relationships which are Action, Prime mover, Antagonist, Synergist, and Thermogenisis.
Action also known as function, makes the movement of a muscle that contracts.
Prime Mover (Biceps) also known as Protagonist.
Prime mover is the primary muscle that brings about the desired movement.
Antagonist (Tricep) is the muscle that does the opposite of the prime mover.
Synergist (Brachialis Radius) is the secondary muscles that bring about the desired movement and it assist the prime mover.
Relative Terms A muscle can be a prime mover for one action, but it can be the anatagonist for the opposite action.
Thermgenesis is a heat production from normal muscle metabolism, due to checmical reaction and friction.
Thermgenesis increases with increased activity.
Maximus Largest
Minimus Smallest.
Major Large
Minor Small
Longus Long
Brevis Short
Deltoid Triangular
Rhomboid Diamond-shaped
Sarratus Sawtoothed (serrated)
Trapezius Trapezoidal
Pectoralis Chest
Brachio Upper Arm
Radialis Radius B.
Gluteus Buttock.
Femoris Femur
Sterno Sternum
Cleido Clavicle
Mastoid Mastoid Process.
Digiti Finger or Toe (digits)
Pollicis Thumb
Hallicus Big Toe
Lateralis Lateral
Medialis Medial
Intermedius Middle
Profundus Deep
Superficialis Superficial
Biceps 2 heads
Triceps 3 heads
Quadriceps 4 heads
Rectus Straight
Transverse Sideways/across
Oblique Diagonal.
Adductor Adducts
Abductor abducts
Flexor Flexes
Extensor extends
Levator Elevates
Head and Neck Muscles Frontalis, Orbicularis oculi, masseter, temporalis, sternocleimastoid, and orbicularis.
Abdominal Wall Muscles Rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis, and linea alba (not a muscle).
Shoulder & Back Muscles Deltoid, pectoralis major, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius.
Upper Extremity Muscles Brachialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, brachioradialis, hand and digit extensors, and hand and digit flexors.
Quadriceps Femoris Muscles Rectoris femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis.
Glutes Muscles Gluteus Maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus.
Hamstrings Muscles Bicep femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus.
Calf Gastrocnemeus, soleus and plantaris.
--% of the population does not have _______. 25%, plantaris.
Foot & Toe Muscle tibalis anterior.
Quadriceps Femoris extends the knee.
Vastus Medialis is in between the muscle and it is not visible.
Gluteus maximus extends the hips.
Gluteus medius primarily is a hip abductor.
hamstrings flexion of the knee.
Created by: nmartinez06



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