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Respiratory Sys

Chapter 17 Q & A

QuestionAnswer
What are the structures of the upper respiratory system? Nose, nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, and larynx
Where is the nasopharynx located? It extends from the posterior nares to the soft palate
Where is the oropharynx located? Between the soft palate and the base of the tongue
Where is the laryngopharynx located? Dorsal to the larynx and connecting to the esophagus
Where is the larynx located? Between the root of the tongue and the upper end of the trachea
What is the function of the nose? Air enters and leaves the respiratory system through here. Cilia inside the nostrils filter out dust and large foreign particles
What is the function of the nasopharynx Air passes through here from the nose on its way to the lungs
What is the function of the oropharynx? It contains the palantine and linguinal tonsils. Food and air pass through here
What is the function of the laryngopharynx? Food and air pass through here
What is the function of the larynx? Also known as the voice box, it prevents food and liquids from entering the trachea, acts as an air passageway between the pharynx and the trachea, and produces sound
What are the structures of the lower respiratory system? Trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Where is the trachea located? It lies just in front of the esophagus and extends from the larynx to the carina
Where are the bronchi located? They branch from the carina into the lungs
Where are the lungs located? They fill the pleural cavity
What is the function of the trachea? It distributes air to the bronchi then to the lungs
What is the function of the bronchi? They distribute air to the lungs
What is the function of the lungs? The right lung has 3 lobes and is responsible for 55% of gas exchange. The left lobe contains only 2 lobes
What are the muscles used in respiration? In inspiration, the internal and external intercostals and diaphragm are used. In expiration, the internal intercostals and the diaphragm are used.
What is the main muscle responsible for respiration? The diaphragm
What are the accessory muscles used for deep inspiration? The sternocleidomastoids and scalenes of the neck and the pectoralis minor of the chest
What are the accessory muscles used in forced expiration? The rectus abdominis and external abdominal obliques
How does atmosperic pressure affect inspiration and expiration? When pressure outside the body is higher than in the lungs, the pressure gradient causes inspiration. When the pressure inside the lungs is greater than atmospheric pressure, expiration occurs until the 2 pressures equalize
How does age affect the respiratory system? It can decrease mobility of the chest wall, increase lung rigidity, decrease number and dilation of alveoli, weaken respiratory muscles, & reduce volume of protective respiratory fluids. These changes can compound the effects of heart & lung disease
What is asthma? Most common chronic illness in children, if exposed to an allergen or other respiratory irritant, the bronchioles constrict & spasm, triggering coughing & wheezing. Inflammation also causes excessive production of thick mucus that further clogs airways
How is asthma treated? With epinephrine & beta-adrenergic stimulants to dilate airways and anti-inflammatory medications & inhaled corticosteroids to treat inflammation and minimize scarring
What is pneumothorax? This occurs when the thoracic wall is punctured and negative pressure is lost causing the lung to recoil and collapse. A weakened or diseased alveoli rupturing could also be a cause
What is emphysema? Progressive lung disease in which lung tissue surrounding alveoli is destroyed. Alveolar walls fused leaving less room for gas exchange and there for trapping air in the lungs
What is barrel-chested? A by-product of emphysema which occurs as the diameter of the chest enlarges due to the trapped air in the lungs
Created by: cbooher16