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muscular system ch 9

Chapter 9 The Muscular System

muscular system includes the skeletal muscles and accessory structures
functions of muscular system provides mobility, provides movement, and produces heat
endomysium delicate connective tissue covering each muscle fiber
fascicles bundles of muscle fiber
fascicles surrounded by perimysiium and bundled into the muscle
epimysium connective tissue covering that surrounds muscles as a whole and binds all muscle fibers together
contraction what muscle cells are specialized for
muscle fibers only shorten to produce movement
tendons anchor muscle to bone and other muscles
tendons made of dense fibrous connective tissue and a continuation of deep fascia
tendons merge with the periosteum to anchor to bone
sarcolemma special name for the cell membrane of the muscle cell
sarcoplasm special name for cytoplasm of muscle cell
sarcoplasm filled with myofibrils and contain sarcomeres
sarcomeres the unit of contraction of the myofibrils of the muscle
myofibrils long protein bundles that fill the sarcoplasm of a muscle fiber
muscle fiber a skeletal muscle cell
myofilaments fine protein fibers that make up a myofibril
z-disc protein backbone that anchors actin filaments
actin filaments thin contractile proteins that interact with myosin
myosin filaments thicker contractile proteins
tintin filaments protein that anchors myosin to the z-disc
actin forms a cross-bride with myosin which shortens the sarcomere
troponin and tropomyosin inhibitory proteins that prevent contraction when relaxed
tropomyosin and troponin attach to actin and block myosin from forming a cross bridge
motor nerve end at each muscle fiber
axon terminal enlarged end of the motor neuron and contains sacs of neurotransmitter acetylcholine
acetylcholine chemical messenger released from the end of a motor neuron
synapse the junction between the axon terminal and the muscle fiber sarcolemma
exocytosis when ACh is released across the synapse
receptors ACh attaches to this in the sarcolemma
electrical impulse ACH causes this in the sarcolemma
cholinesterase deactivates ACh
T-Tubules tubes that allow signals to travel into the cell
sarcoplasmic reticulum stores calcium ions, ER of muscle cell
contraction when myosin binds to actin
origin where the muscle originates, usually the more stationary of the two ends
belly the thick middle part of a muscle
insertion opposite end of the origin, crosses at least one joint from the origin
insertion determines what the action of the muscle is
heads in muscles with more than one belly
action the movement a muscle causes when it contracts
prime mover (protagonist) the primary muscle that brings about the desired movement
antagonist the muscle that does the opposite of the prime mover
synergist secondary muscles that bring about the desired movement. assists the prime mover
thermogenesis heat production from normal muscle metabolism
thermogenesis is due to friction and chemical reactions, increased with increased activity
maximus largest
minimus smallest
major large
minor small
longus long
brevis short
deltoid triangular
rhomboid diamond shaped
sarratus sawtoothed
trapezius trapezoidal
pectoralis chest
brachio upper arm
radialis radius bone
gluteus buttock
femoris femur
sterno sternum
cleido clavicle
mastoid mastoid process
digiti fingers or toes
pollicis thumb
hallicus big toe
lateralis lateral
medialis medial
intermedium middle
profundus deep
superficialis superficial
biceps 2 heads
triceps 3 heads
quadriceps 4 heads
rectus straight
transverse sideways/across
oblique diagonal
adductor adducts
abductor abducts
flexor flexes
extensor extends
levator elevates
head and neck frontalis, orbicularis oculi, masseter, temporalis, sternocleidomastoid and orbicularis oris
abdominal wall rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis, and line alba
shoulder and back deltoid, pectoralis major, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius
upper extremity brachialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, brachioradialis, hand and digit extensors, and hand and digit flexors
quadriceps femoris rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis
glutes gluetus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus
hamstrings biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus
calf gastrocnemeus, soleus and plantaris
foot and toe extensors tibalis anterior
plantaris 25% of population does not have one
Created by: stephanierule