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Lymphatic & Immune

Chapter 16 Q & A

QuestionAnswer
What is lymph? A clear, colorless fluid similar to plasma, but has a lower protein content
What are lymphatic vessels? Formed by a thin layer of epithelial cells that overlap loosely, they have a thin wall and valves to prevent backflow
Where are lymph tissues located? They exist throughout the body as passages that open to the outside; such as the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts
Where are lymph organs located? These include red bone marrow, the thymus, lymph nodes, the tonsils, and the spleen
What are the 3 lines of defense in immunity? External barriers, nonspecific immunity, and specific immunity
What are external barriers? Barriers that keep most pathogens at bay, such as the skin and mucous membranes
What is nonspecific immunity? It is aimed at a broad range of attackers, present from birth, & allows the body to repel pathogens to which it has never been exposed
What is specific immunity? This occurs when the body retains a memory of a pathogen after defeating it
What is the 1st step in phagocytosis? When a phagocyte encounters a microorganism, it sends out membrane projections called pseudopods
What is the 2nd step in phagocytosis? The pseudopods envelop the organism, forming a complete sac called a phagosome
What is the 3rd step in phagocytosis? The phagosome travels to the interior of the cell and fuses with a lysosome, which contains digestive enzymes
What is the 4th step in phagocytosis? The digestive enzymes from the lysosome destroy the microorganism. The waste products are then released from the cell
What is the role of natural killer cells? They are lymphocytes that continually roam the body seeking out pathogens or diseased cells
What are the 4 classic signs of inflammation? Swelling, redness, heat, and pain
How does swelling aid in healing? It compresses veins, while forcing the capillary valves open to promote capillary drainage. This helps because lymphatic capillaries are more adept at removing bacteria, dead cells, and tissue debris than blood capillaries
How does redness aid in healing? This results from hyperemia which brings materials necessary for healing, including oxygen and amino acids
How does heat aid in healing? This increases the metabolic rate, and thus, the rate of tissue repair
How does pain aid in healing? This signals that an injury has occurred and serves as a reminder to rest the area to allow healing
What are the 4 classes of specific immunity? Natural active, artificial active, natural passive, artificial passive
What is natural active immunity? This occurs when the body produces antibodies or T cells after being exposed to a particular antigen; such as after becoming ill with the measles
What is artificial active immunity? This results when the body makes T cells and antibodies against a disease as a result of a vaccination, such as for tetanus or influenza
What is natural passive immunity? This results when a fetus aquires antibodies from the mother through the placenta, or when a baby aquires them through breastfeeding
What is artificial passive immunity? This involves obtaining serum from a person or animal that has produced antibodies against a certain pathogen and then injecting it into someone else; such as in rabies or botulism
What is an immune system disorder? These occur when the immune system overreacts to an antigen or fails to react. At times, the immune system directs its actions at its own tissues, producing an autoimmune disease
What is hypersensitivity Inappropriate or excessive response of the immune system. The most common is an allergy. Reactions may be immediate or delayed
What is autoimmune disease? This occurs when the body's immune system fails to differentiate between self-antigens and foreign antigens. Tends to run in families. There are more than 80 types
What is immunodeficiency disease? This occurs when the immune system fails to adequately protect the body against pathogens. The most common is AIDS
How does cancer affect lymph nodes? Cancer often metastisizes through the lymphatic system. When cancer cell break free, they enter the lymphatic capillaries and travel to the nearest lymph node. They multiply and destroy the node then move to the next
What is significant about splenic rupture? The spleen's location makes it vulnerable to injury from trauma. It is highly vascular & a severe injury or rupture can produce a fatal hemorrhage. It's extremely difficult to repair. A person can live w/o a spleen, but may be more vulnerable to infection
Created by: cbooher16