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Monahan: Nerve Cells

Types of Neurons and Neuroglia

VocabularyDefinition
neuron a nerve cell that carries an impulse
neuroglia nerve cells that do not carry impulses, outnumber the neurons
multipolar neuron a neuron with numerous dendrites and one axon; motor and interneurons are this shape
bipolar neuron a neuron with two extensions from the soma, one extension being the dendrite and the other the axon; found in the eyes (rods and cones)
unipolar neuron a neuron with one extension from the soma that eventually splits into a separate dendrite and axon; found in ganglia outside the spinal cord
sensory neuron a neuron that carries an impulse from the PNS to the CNS
interneuron a neuron that connects a sensory and motor neuron, integrates information and makes decisions
motor neuron a neuron that carries an impulse from the CNS to the PNS
afferent neuron another term for a sensory neuron
efferent neuron another term for a motor neuron
association neuron another term for an interneuron
PNS peripheral nervous system that includes your spinal and cranial nerves
CNS the central nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord
nerve a group/bundle of axons in the PNS
tract a bundle/group of axons in the CNS
ganglion a group of somas in the PNS
nucleus a group of somas in the CNS
astrocyte a star-shaped glial cell that physically supports neurons, helps transmit impulses by regulating ion concentrations; found in the CNS
microglia smallest type of glial cell, found in CNS and digests foreign particles
Schwann cells glial cells in the PNS that myelinate axons
oligodendrocytes glial cells that myelinate axons in the CNS
ependymal cells ciliated glial cells found within the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord, the cilia helps circulate the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
Created by: smonahan