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WWI - AP EURO

World War One

TermDefinition
Nicholas II Tsar of Russia, abdicated himself, sent troops to stop the bread rioters, troops turned on him and killed their own generals.
Rasputin Holy, healing man. Hired by Alexandra to cure her son of hemophilia. Was hated so much he was eventually killed.
Alexander Kerensky Leader of petrograd soviet and provisional government. He keeps Russia in the war, ultimately leading to the October Revolution.
Provisional Government Government put in place after Tsar Nicholas II was abdicated, and before a new government/tsar was put into place.
Alexandra Wife of Nicholas II. Tsarina of Russia, had 5 children, one son, Alexis (hemophiliac).
Army Order No. 1 An order issued to the Russian military when the provisional government was formed. It deprived officers of their authority and placed power in elected committees of common soldiers. This led to the collapse of army discipline.
Soviet Worker committee's in Russia. Communist.
Petrograd Soviet City Council of Petrograd, it's committee's led to October Revolution.
"Voting with their feet" Showing your opinion of something by acting nearly doubled.
Leon Trotsky Founder and first leader of the Red Army.
"Peace Land and Bread" Slogan of Lenin, what he promised he could get for the people.
Treaty of Brest-Litvosk Separate peace treaty between Russia and the Central Powers announcing Russia's exit from WWI.
Bolsheviks Communist, A member of the left-wing majority group of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party that adopted Lenin's theses on party organization in 1903.
Cheka The first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations
Reds Bolsheviks, Communists
Whites Royalists, Democrats, Capitalists, Mensheviks
Triple Alliance Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy
Triple Entente Great Britain, France, Russia
Francis Ferdinand Royal Prince of Austria-Hungary, assassination of him and his wife causes WWI.
Sarajevo
Austrian Ultimatum Austria-Hungary's ultimatum given to Serbia, when Serbia didn't accept everything Austria wanted, Austria declared war, sponsored by Germany.
"Blank Check" Given to Austria by Germany, this "blank check" allowed Austria to go to war with Serbia, this basically gave Austria the whole support of the Germans.
Mobilization Getting troops and supplies ready for war.
Rosa Luxemburg Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist and revolutionary socialist of Polish Jewish descent who became a naturalized German citizen.
Schlieffen Plan Plan put in by Germany, to get rid of the two-front war possibility. Their plan was to take out France first by capturing Paris. Then they would take on Russia. Otherwise Germany would be surrounded.
Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorf The combination of Paul von Hindenburg and his Chief of Staff Erich Ludendorff came to direct the entire German war effort,
Balfour Declaration Confirming support from the British government for the establishment in Palestine of a Homeland for the Jewish people
Lusitania Cruise ship that was sunk by the German army, because it was thought that weapons were being transported on it. The sinking of this ship led to the US joining WWI.
T.E. Lawrence Was a British Army officer renowned especially for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Arab Revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule of 1916–18
Self-Determination Determination of one's own fate or course of action without compulsion; free will.
Georges Clemenceau A French statesman who led the nation to victory in the First World War.
David Lloyd George British liberal statesman and politician
Treaty of Versailles The peace settlement between Germany and the Allied Powers that officially ended World War I.
League of Nations To ensure that war never broke out again.
Background Causes 1) Nationalism: Rivalry and No Fear 2) Militarism: enthusiastic arms build-up, supported by the public. 3) Imperialism: Rivalry, Big War
Dates to Know WWI BEGINS: 1914, ENDS: 1918 Great Depression WWII BEGINS: 1939, ENDS: 1945 COLD WAR BEGINS: 1945, ENDS: 1991
Belgium Used by Germany to get to France, ruined by the war
Who caused WWI? Germany fired the first shot, but almost every country was to blame
Allies Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the US *Italy declared free agency and went to GB because they "bid" the highest (offered the most land). Once Russia drops out in 1917, US joins.
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Allies vs. Central Powers Allies win, but the Central Powers came very close (Germany was the main force in the Central Powers)
Armistace cease fire
The Treaty of Versailles Conference Resulted in WWII Representatives: US= Woodrow Wilson, GB= David Lloyd George, Fr= Georges Clemenceau, It= Vittorio Orlando *Germany is not at the table because they were not allowed to, Russia was not there because they dropped out of the war*
"War to make the world safer for democracies" Woodrow Wilson
Terms of the Treaty of Versailles War Guilt Clause: Germany caused the war, reparations (payment for damages done), Alsace and Lorraine are to be given back, Germany loses the countries they won from Russia. German army is reduced to 100,000.
Russian Revolution Causes Nicholas II and Alexandra are overthrown because they are; 1) losing the war, 2)Death and Famine, 3) History of Oppression, 4) Rasputin.
First Phase: March Revolution Mass Uprising, bread riots break out everywhere, troops are sent to control them, but troops turn on their own and join the riots. Tsar loses control of his city. As a result, Nicholas II gives up his throne.
Second Phase: October Revolution Communist revolution, civil war, reds vs. whites, the reds win.
Why do the Reds win? Whites were not united, did not fight together. Trotsky was the best general out there.
Created by: lanamae55