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Chapter 23

The Digestive System

teeth incisors, canines, pre molars, molars
Salivary Glands produce saliva to carry to mouth (paritoid, submandibular, sublingual)
Tongue body, frenulum, Papillae
Stomach Regions Cardiac Region, Fundus, Body, Pylorus, Greater/Lesser Curvature
Chyme semifluid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
Rugae folds on wall of stomach that increase surface area
Gastric Pits indentations in stomach where gastric glands (mucus, acid, enzyme secreting) enter
Duodenum first section of small intestine (Asorption)
Jejunum middle of small intestine
illeum last sec of small intestine, separated from large intestine (cecum) by ileocecal valve
Plicae circulares numerous permanent crescentic folds of mucous membrane found in the small intestine especially in the lower part of the duodenum and the jejunum
villi tiny, finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the intestinal wall
Lacteal lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine ○ Intestinal Crypts
Peristalsis muscular contractions of the intestine or other tubular structure that propel the contents onward by alternate contraction and relaxation
Cecum beginning of large intestine; “pouch” ■Vermiform Appendix
Colon Ascending → Transverse → Descending → Sigmoid
Rectum end of large intestine Anal Canal, Anal Columns, External/Internal Anal Sphincter
Taenia Coli ribbons” of smooth muscle that run longitudinally through ascending, transverse, and descending colon, contract to produce “bulges” = haustra
Haustra segmental pouches throughout colon caused by taenia coli
structures of Large intestines Anal columns, Anal Sphincters,Haustra, Taenia Coli
Liver Largest gland in the body, responsible for 500+ functions (processes fats, detoxifies poisons and drugs, makes blood proteins, etc.)
Liver function produce bile (green, alkaline stored in gallbladder and secreted into the duodenum)
Liver anatomy ■ 4 Lobes: Right, Left, Caudate (left of inferior vena cava), Quadrate (left of gallbladder) ■ Ligaments: falciform, round, ligamentum venosum, R/L triangular ligaments
Bile green, alkaline fluid necessary for the proper digestion of lipids (fats) ○made in liver ○Released to duodenum through ducts (R/L Hepatic Ducts → Common Hepatic Ducts & Released into duodenum from ampulla via sphincter
Gallbladder muscular sac, resting in a shallow depression on the visceral surface of right lobe of liver ○ Stores and concentrates bile (produced by the liver) ○Cystic Duct - duct attached to gallbladder ○Cystic artery
Pancreas both an exocrine and endocrine (secretes hormones) gland ○ produce most of the enzymes that digest food in the small intestine
Gross Anatomy of Pancreas 3Regions: Head, Body, Tail Main Pancreatic Duct - joins common bile duct to form hepatopancreatic ampulla (pancreatic juices) Accessory Pancreatic Duct - in the head of pancreas, drains into either duodenum, or main pancreatic duct (bicarbonate)
Acinar Cells make, store, and secrete 22+ pancreatic enzymes (digest various types of food in small intestine)
Zymogen Granules stores of inactive enzymes Langerhans cells -endocrine cells
Impacted Tooth - disorder in which a tooth is so crowded in its socket that it cannot erupt normally
mumps virus spread through saliva → inflammation of parotid gland
Hatial Hernia superior portion of stomach pushed through esophageal hiatus into thorax
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease abnormal relaxation of cardiac sphincter
Appendicitis inflammation of appendix (blockage that traps bacteria in the lumen
Diverticulosis condition in which diverticula (abnormal sac or pouch formed at a weak point in the wall) are present in the intestine without signs of inflammation
Hemorrhoids varicose veins of the hemorrhoidal veins in the anal canal
Cirrhosis progressive inflammation of liver (chronic alcoholism)
Gallstones too much cholesterol or too few bile salts can lead to crystallization of cholesterol in gallbladder
Pancreatitis inflammation of pancreas usually due to blockage of pancreatic duct (gallstones or alcoholism-induced protein
Peritonitis inflammation & infection of peritoneum
Peptic Ulcers craterlike erosions in mucosa of digestive tract caused by Helicobacter pylori bacteria (stomach = gastric ulcers & duodenum = duodenal ulcers
Intestinal Obstruction hindrance in movement of chyme or feces through the intestine (either mechanical due to hernia, twist, etc. or nonmechanical stop in peristalsis
Inflammatory Bowel Disease periodic inflammation of intestinal wall characterized by chronic leukocyte infiltration of this wall (cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, intestinal bleeding, etc.)
Functions of Digestive system Prepare food for cellular utilization. Ingestion, Mastication, Deglutition Digestion, Absorption Peristalsis & Defecation
Serous membranes Parietal & Visceral Peritoneum Mesentery Peritoneal cavity falciform ligament, greater & lesser omentum
Layer of GI tract Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis Serosa Innervation: sympathetic & parasympathetic
Created by: tianastudy



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