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Chapter 22

Respiratory system

Functions of Respiratory System Oxygen and CO2 exchange sound productions Abdominal Compressions Protective and Reflexive Movements
External Nose Functions airway for respiration, moist/warms entering air, filters inhaled air ,resonating chamber for speech,olfactory
What is the External nose made up of ? Nasal Bones and Cartilages
What are the Nasal Cartilages ? Lateral Nasal, Greater & Lesser Alar Cartilages
Nasal Cavity made of Apertures (choanae), Hard/soft palate, Vesitibule lined with mucosa, filters air cilated cells"hair like structures"
Paranasal sinuses paired sinuses in face bones adjacent to nasal cavity.
Pharynx connects nosal & oral cavities to larynx and esophagus Nasopharynx oropharynx lyryngopharynx
Nasopharynx upper part, connects with nasal cavity above soft palate. uvula, auditory tube, pharyngeal tonsils
Oropharynx palatine and lingual tonsils
Laryngopharynx opening to larynx & esophagus (voice box)
Trachea flexible “windpipe”, inferior to larynx, travels through the neck and into mediastinum, dividing at the carina into the R & L main bronchus
Main Bronchi runs obliquely, cares passageway for air into lungs
Lobar Bronchii arise from the primary bronchi, with each one serving as the airway to a specific lobe of the lung
Pulmonary Alveoli gas exchange
Gross Anatomy of Lungs In thoracic cavity, lateral to mediastinum Apex, Base, Hilum (indentation where blood vessels, bronchi, lymph vessels, and nerves enter/exit lungs), Superior & Inferior Lobes, Olique FIssures
Left Lung 2 Cardiac Notch, Lingula
Right Lung 3 Middle Lobe, Horizontal Fissure
Four Surfaces of Each Lung: mediastinal, base, apex, costal surface
Parietal Pleura covers internal surface of thoracic wall
Visceral Pleura covers external lung surfaces
Pleural Cavity space between parietal and visceral pleurae; fluid filled; decreases friction
Rhinitis (disorder) inflammation of nasal mucosa (cold virus, allergens,
Bronchial Asthma respiratory disorder wheezing; usually of allergic origin
Cystic Fibrosis heredit. causes abnormal thick mucus, leading blockage of respiratory path
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - nonreversible lung disease , combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis; heavy cigarette smokers.
Epistaxis nasal hemorrhage (“nosebleed”)
Ventilation breathing, occurs in respiratory centers of brain in medulla oblongata
inspriation drawing air into lungs
Expiration expelling air from lungs
upper respiratory tract Nasal cavity , Pharynx, Larynz
Lower respiratory tract Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs
internal nose superior,middle,inferior nasal conchae/turbinates,
Glottis in larynx (vocal cords and slitlike opening )
circoateynoid only muscle supplied by the external laryngeal branch of vagus
Created by: tianastudy