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Vascular system

Chapter 15 Q & A

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 types of blood vessels? Arteries, veins, and capillaries
What is the function of an artery? To carry blood away from the heart
What is the function of a vein? To carry blood from the body to the heart
What is the function of capillaries? They connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins
What are the 3 layers in the blood vessel walls? Tunica intima (innermost), tunica media (middle), and tunica externa (outer)
What is the difference between arteries and arterioles? Arteries closest to the heart are the largest, as they travel further away, they start to branch and divide, becoming ever smaller. Arterioles are the smallest arteries
What is the difference between veins and venules? Veins closest to the heart are the largest and thickest. Venules are the smallest veins that collect blood from capillaries
What is the composition of capillaries? Only an endothelium and basement membrane. They have very thin walls through which substances can filter
What is the 1st pathway of blood in pulmonary circulation? Blood leaves the right ventricle through the pulmonary trunk, which branches into the right and left pulmonary arteries
What is the 2nd pathway of blood in pulmonary circulation? The pulmonary arteries enter the lungs
What is the 3rd pathway of blood in pulmonary circulation? The pulmonary arteries branch into lobar arteries. These arteries branch into smaller and smaller arteries until ending at the capillary beds
What is the 4th pathway of blood in pulmonary circulation? The capillaries surround the alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen for CO2 occurs
What is the final pathway of blood in pulmonary circulation? The capillaries form venules, which merge to form veins, which merge until they form the pulmonary vein. Oxygenated blood is returned to the left atrium
What is the 1st pathway of blood in systemic circulation? Blood from the left ventricle enters the aorta. The right & left coronary arteries branch off the ascending aorta to supply the myocardium
What is the 2nd pathway of blood in systemic circulation? The aortic arch branches into 3 major ateries; brachiocephalic artery (supplies the head & right arm), left common carotid artery (extends into the neck), left subclavian artery (supplies left shoulder and upper arm)
What is the 3rd pathway of blood in systemic circulation? The descending aorta travels down through the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The abdominal aorta branches into right & left common iliac arteries which supply the lower pelvis & the leg
Where on the body may pulses be felt? The carotid, brachial, radial, femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries
What are the principle arteries in the body? Thoracic & abdominal aorta, celiac trunk, gastric splenic and hepatic arteries, renal, superior & inferior mesenteric, subclavian, axillary, brachial, radial, common iliac, internal & external iliac, femoral, popliteal, ant. & post. tibial, dorsalis pedis
What are the principle veins in the body? SVC, IVC, internal & external jugular, cephalic, basilic, median cubital, radial, femoral, popliteal, ant. & post. tibial, fibular, brachiocephalic, subclavian, axillary, hepatic, common, int. & ext. iliac, great saphenous
What is the normal range for blood pressure? Less than 120/80 mm Hg
What are the risks of elevated blood pressure? Heart disease, stroke and heart failure, and kidney damage
What is an aneurysm? A bulge that occurs when a portion of the arterial wall weakens and the blood inside the artery pushes against the weakened area
What are the most common sites for aneurysms? The aorta, the renal arteries, and the circle of Willis (at the base of the brain)
What is edema? Occurs when fluid filters out of the capillaries faster than it is reabsorbed. It appears as swelling in the ankles, fingers, abdomen, or face
What are the 3 main causes of edema? Increased capillary filtration, reduced capillary reabsorption, and obstructed lymphatic drainage
What causes vericose veins? With age, blood vessels become less elastic, causing blood pressure to rise. Veins weaken and stretch. This pulls the cusps of the valves apart, allowing blood to flow backward. The veins become distended
What is selective placement? This means that a catheter starts in 1 blood vessel and then is moved or guided to other vessels
What is the "trunk"? The blood vessel where the catheter is originally introduced
What is the first order? The main artery (trunk) of the vascular family
What is the second order? The first branch off the main artery
What is the third order? The branch from the second order
Created by: cbooher16