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Vascular system

Chapter 15 definitions

Tunica intima Innermost layer of a vein or artery; consists of simple squamous epithelium; smooth surface keeps blood flowing freely; produces chemicals that cause vessels to dilate or constrict
Endothelium Simple squamous epithelium of the tunica intima
Tunica media Middle layer of veins and arteries, also the thickest layer; Composed of smooth muscle and elastic tissue; innervated by the autonomic nervous system which allows the blood vessel to change diameter
Tunica externa Outer layer of veins and arteries; strong, flexible, fibrous connective tissue; supports and protects the blood vessel; thickest layer in veins, a little thinner than the middle layer in arteries
Aneurysm Formed when a portion of the arterial wall weakens, blood inside the artery pushes against the weakened area, causing it to bulge
Arterioles Smallest arteries; also called resistance vessels; connected to capillaries by metarterioles
Arteries Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body
Veins Carry deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart
Conducting arteries The body's largest arteries; also called elastic arteries; examples are the aorta, common carotid artery, subclavian artery
Distributing arteries Carry blood to specific organs and areas of the body; also called muscular arteries; examples are brachial, femoral, and renal arteries
Capacitance vessels Veins; so named because of their great capacity for storing blood
Exchange vessels Capillaries; so named because nutrients, wastes, and hormones are tranferred between blood and tissues within them
Capillary beds Networks of capillaries
Microcirculation What is formed when capillaries connect arterioles to venules
Precapillary sphincter The beginning of each capillary bed that regulates the flow of blood into the network
Sinusoid Unique capillary of the liver, bone marrow, and spleen; irregular, blood-filled space that is more permeable to allow for the passage of proteins and blood cells
Diffusion Most important mechanism of capillary exchange; substances move from an area of greater to lesser concentration
Filtration Method of capillary exchange that occurs close to the arterial side of the capillary bed; higher pressure pushes plasma & dissolved nutrients into the fluid of the surrounding tissues
Colloid osmotic pressure Albumin in the blood pulls tissue fluid & the cell's waste products into the capillaries
Edema Occurs when fluid filters out of the capillaries faster than it's reabsorbed; appears as swelling in the ankles, fingers, abdomen, or face
Increased capillary filtration Cause of edema; rise in capillary pressure causes a rise in filtration; causes include kidney failure, poor venous return from inactivity, or failure of the right ventricle
Reduced capillary reabsorption Deficiency of albumin, causing edema; may result from liver disease, severe burns, and kidney disease
Obstructed lymphatic drainage Cause of edema; obstruction of the lymphatic system causing fluid to accumulate
Portal systems Blood flows through 2 networks of capillaries; occur in the kidneys and liver
Anastomosis 2 vessels join together; provides alternative routes of blood flow in case a vessel becomes obstructed
Pulmonary circulation Begins at the right ventricle and involves the circulation of blood through the lungs
Systemic circulation Begins at the left ventricle and involves the circulation of blood through the body
Superior mesenteric artery Supplies most of the small interstine and part of the large intestine
Inferior mesenteric artery Supplies part of the large intestine
External carotid artery Supplies most of the external head structures
Internal carotid artery Enters the cranial cavity and supplies the orbits and 80% of the cerebrum
Basilar artery The 2 vertebral arteries unite on the undersurface of the brainstem
Circle of Willis Anastomoses that create a circle of arteries at the base of the brain; helps ensure that the brain receives an adequate supply of blood
Internal jugular vein Drains most of the blood from the brain
Cephalic vein Frequent site for the administration of intravenous fluids
Median cubital Most common site for drawing blood
Great saphenous vein Longest vein in the body; frequently harvested for use as grafts in coronary artery bypass surgery
External jugular vein Drains blood from the scalp, facial muscles, and other superficial structures
Pressure gradient The difference in pressure between 2 structures
Systolic pressure As the left ventricle contracts, typical normal pressure of 110 mm Hg
Diastolic pressure The left ventricle relaxes, the pressure drops to an average of 70 mm Hg
Blood pressure The force exerted by the blood against a vessel wall; determined by cardiac output, blood volume, and resistance
Peripheral resistance The opposition to flow resulting from the friction of moving blood against the vessel walls
Pulse pressure The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
Vasomotion Adjusting the diameter of blood vessels
Vasoconstriction Reduction of the diameter of a vessel that increases the resistance to blood flow
Vasodilation Increase in vessel diameter that decreases resistance to blood flow
Vasomotor center An area of the medulla in the brain that sends impulses via the autonomic nervous system to alter blood vessel diameter and, therefore, blood pressure
Baroreceptors In the carotid sinus and aortic arch that detect changes in blood pressure and transmit signals along the gloospharangeal and vagus nerves to the cardiac control center and the vasomotor center
Skeletal muscle pump Muscles surrounding leg veins aid in venous return
Respiratory pump The process of breathing promotes the flow of venous blood in the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Vena cava The body's cheif vein, which serves to return blood to the heart
Created by: cbooher16



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