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GI Infections

Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract

E. coli The most common organsim in the gut. Is an opportunistic pathogen of the urinary tract (urinary tract infections).
Viruses Responsible for 50 - 70% of GI infections.
Small intestine infections characterised by Watery diarrhoea and vomiting
Large intestine infections characterised by Dysentery (low faecal volume and many cases of blood)
Intoxication Due to the ingestion of preformed toxins. Symptoms occur within 30 minutes of intake.
Infection Due to the ingestion of viable micro-organisms Symptoms occur after 24 hours. Can be enteric (local infection) or non-enteric (invades other organs)
Toxicoinfection Caused by sporeformers (C. perfringens) and Gram - organisms (in which only a small number of organisms are required)
Short incubation (within 1 day) Emetic or diarrhoeal syndrome S. aureus, B. cereus, C perfringens
Intermediate incubation(1-3 days) Bacterial or viral agents Large or small bowel enteritis
Long incubation (3-5 days) Haemorrhagic colitis
Staphylococcus Aureus INTOXICATION Heat stable and heat resistant enterotoxins in fatty foods (custard, cream). Symptoms occur after 6 hours. Complications include scalded skin syndrome, TSS, carbuncles and pustular impetigo.
Clostridium botulinum INTOXICATION Endospores found in inadequately prepared canned food. AB toxin A - blocks cholinergic neurotransmission at the NMJ B - protects the A portion from stomach acid Death may result from respiratory failure. DON'T FEED HONEY TO BABIES
Bacillus cereus TOXICOINFECTION A sporeformer that produces heat resistant and heat stable spores in normal conditions.'Fried rice syndrome' - Emetic toxin (Type 1) - high carb foods - Diarrhoeal form (Type 2) - high protein foods Can cause tissue and blood damage.
Clostridium perfringens TOXICOINFECTION A sporeformer that releases a heat labile protein when vegetative cells become spores. Protein binds to brush border in small intestine resulting in watery diarrhoea. Large numbers need to be ingested. Implicated in cellulitis.
Clostridium difficile TOXICOINFECTION The most common cause of diarrhoea in hospitalised patients or those with excessive antibiotic use - opportunistic infection. Can lead to diarrhoea, pseudo-membranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Associated with PPIs
Vibrio cholerae TOXICOINFECTION Gram - bacteria. The majority are killed by gastric acid but some can infect the small intestine. Exotoxin doesn't penetrate the mucosa.Causes a net release of ions from the gut wall causing abrupt watery diarrhoea
Enteropathogenic E. Coli TOXICOINFECTION The toxin causes the destruction of the microvilli on cells of the small intestine. It can cause death in infants.
E. Coli Gastroenteritis INFECTION Is often called traveller's diarrhoea
Campylobacter jejuni INFECTION The no. 1 food borne pathogen in Australia - associated with poultry. Causes enterotoxin mediated diarrhoea or inflammatory invasive diarrhoea. Complications are seizures, meningitis and Guillain Barre Syndrome.
Salmonella INFECTION Gram - motile anaerobe. Resistant to bile salts and produces the smell of rotten eggs. Causes acute gastroenteritis and Typhoid fever
Salmonella Typhi Causes Typhoid fever. Transmitted person-person by chronic carrier or faecal contaminated food/water. The gall bladder is the reservoir in humans. Can lead to sepsis/bacteraemia.
Helicobacter Pylori INFECTION 50% of the world's population is carriers. It is implicated in 90% of duodenal ulcers and 70% of gastric ulcers. Treated via triple therapy (amoxicillin, macrolide and an antacid)
Shigella INFECTION A dysentery syndrome. Has a small inoculum. Causes ulceration of the intestine, diarrhoea, malabsorption of electrolytes and shuts down cellular metabolism (NAD glycohydrolase).
Listeria monocytogenes INFECTION A Gram + rod that can survive at cold temperatures. Is asymptomatic in adults but can cross the placental and blood-brain barrier. It can cause meningitis in the newborn, gastroenteritis and respiratory distress. Pregnant women at risk.
Viral Gastroenteritis INFECTION Caused by the Norwalk virus, rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus.
Hepatitis A INFETION A mild intestinal infection that will lead to hepatocellular jaundice. Immunisation is available
Hepatitis E INFECTION Implicated in many epidemics. Has a high fatality rate in pregnant women.
Amoebiasis INFECTION Caused by the ingestion of mature cysts of this parasite from contaminated food, water or faecal exposure during sexual contact. Causes dysentery, diarrhoea, appendicitis and abscess formation.
Giardia INFECTION The most common water-borne infection. Symptoms include diarrhoea, abdominal pain, cramps, flatus and steatorrhoea.
Cryptosporidiosis INFECTION Responsible for persistent chronic diarrhoea in immunocompromised individuals.
Ascariasis (Round Worm) INFECTION The most common intestinal helminth. Are transmitted by contaminated food and penetrate the intestine to invade the liver, lung and heart.
Tape Worm INFECTION Segmented worms in which the adult lives in the GIT. Larvae are found in almost every organ. Can grow up to 25m in length
Created by: Epoot