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Chapter 10 NS

Nervous System

Glia = ? Glue
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Everything but the brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and Spinal cord
Oligodenrocytes Produce myelin in the CNS
About ___ glial cells for Each neuron 50
Secretes cerebrospinal fluid (CFS) Ependymal Cells
Myelinated Tissue is called _________ White matter (Fat is White)
Line ventricles of brain? Ependymal Cells
12 Cranial, 31 Spinal nerves PNS
Nodes of Ranvier Spaces between Schawann Cells
Somatic Receptors Skin, Skeletal m., Joints
Visceral Reseptors Internal Organs (AUTONOMIC)
Afferent Neurons Sensory Neurons Send impulses TO cns
Efferent Neurons Motor Neurons Send impulses FROM cns
Neurilemma Outer layer of cell
Schwann Cells form _______ Myelin Sheath
BBB = ? Blood Brain Barrier
The BBB Prevents ? Harmful substances from entering the brain
Effectors are ______ Structures effected by efferent neuron
Somatic Neurons Effect Skeletal m.
Visceral Neurons Effect smooth m., cardiac m., and Glands
Interneurons Connect CNS neurons together
Interneurons make up ____% of the bodys nerves 90%
Soma = ? Cell Body
Cell body contains ? Nucleus and organelles
Dendrites send impulses ________ the cell body Towards
Axon send impulses ______ the cell body Away from
Have multiple denrites and one axon off the cell body Multipolar
One axon and One denrite off the cell body Bipolar
Pseudounipolar / Unipolar _______ off cell body One branch off the cell body
Axon have _______________ at end of each branch Synaptic Knob
Internevron found only in _______ CNS
Nerves go ________ way ONLY ONE
CNS Central Nervous System
PNS Peripheral Nervous System
CFS Cerebrospinal Fluid
Na+ Sodium Ions
K+ Potassium Ions
Interior rich in Na+ Exterior rich in K+ Resting potential
Region of interior changes from negative to positive Depolarization
Nerve impulses continue down the length of the axon Action Potential
K+ flows out of the cell Repolarization
Membrane is polarized but, Na+ and K+ are on wrong side of membrane Refactory Period
Saltare = ? To leap
Depolarization Reversal of the charges
Makes the membrane more permeable to ions? Depolarization
Sensory Neurons AFFERENT
Motor Neurons Efferent
Net Positive charge on the outside and negative charge on the inside Polarized
Refactory period Resetting
Increases the velocity of nerve transmittion in myelinated fibers Saltatory Conduction
Space between the axons of one neuron and dendrite or cell body of another Synapse
The terminal end of the presynaptic neuron Synaptic knob
Releases neurotransmitter by exocytosis after being signaled by electrical depolarization of the cell membrane Synaptic knob
Chemicals the excite or inhibit a neuron in the synapse Neurotransmitters
Triggers depolarization on the postsynaptic neuron Neurotransmitters
ACh Acetylcholine
The axons of many (not all) neurons are encased in Myelin Sheath
The cell body AKA _______ Soma
Gaps in the myelin sheath node of Ranvier
Consists of the vast network of nerves throughout the body PNS
Consists of the brain and spinal cord CNS
Found ONLY in the CNS Interneurons
Synaptic knobs also called ??? Processes
Electrical balance is restored Repolarization
Region of interior changes from negative to positive Depolarization
extended from the end of the spinal cord is a bundle of nerves called ________ Cauda Equina
Contains fibers that carry sensory information into the spinal cord Dorsal (posterior) nerve root
Single nerve resulting from fusion of dorsal and ventral nerve roots spinal nerve
Nerve contains both sensory and motor nerves mixed
Lack on myelin in matter Gray matter
______ matter is made of fat causing a _________ color White, White
Innermost layer of spinal cord pia mater
Filled with cerebrospinal fluid subarachnoid space
delicate layer resembling a cobweb Arachnoid Mater
Tough outer layer of spinal cord Dura Mater
Exit from the ventral horn to carry motor information out of the spinal cord Ventral (anterior) nerve roots
lies between the outer coverings of the spinal cord Epidural space
carries cerebrospinal fluid through the spinal cord Central Canal
Gray matter is located ______________ Mostly Cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons
H-Shaped (butterfly) mass divided into two sets of horns called Posterior (dorsal) horns & Ventral (anterior) horns
intervertebral discs Gaps between Vertebrae
Dura Mater Lines the cranium and vertebral canal
Arachnoid Mater Web-like strands that connect to pia mater
Pia Mater Inside the arachnoid
Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges
Fasciculi AKA __________ Tracts
Ascending means ________ Up
Descending means __________ Down
Bundles of functionally related fibers Tracts
Connective tissue membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord Meninges
DRG Dorsal root ganglia
Only afferent neurons Sensory nerves
Only Efferent neurons Motor nerves
Both sensory and motor neurons Mixed nerves
Cervical nerves are named according to the vertebra _________ Below
Network from the upper cervical nerves Cervical Plexus
Network from the lower cervical nerves Brachial Plexus
supply various structures in pelvis and the entire lower extremity Lumbar and Sacral plexi
Latin for horse tail Cauda equina
Continuation of spinal nerves beyond spinal cord Cauda Equina
Spinal cord reflexes __________ depend on the brain DO NOT
Detect a stimulus and generate an impulse Receptors
Transmit impulse to CNS Sensory neurons
Interprets the impulse sent and redirects it CNS
Transmit impulses to effector Motor neurons
Performs an action Effector
The Patellar reflex Stretch reflex
Regulate heart rate Cardiac centers
Regulate Blood Pressure Vasomotor Centers
Regulates Respiration Respiratory Centers
Coughing, Sneezing, Swallowing, Vomiting Reflex Centers
Posterior to medulla, pons, and 4th ventricle; inferior to occipital lobe of cerebrum Cerebellum
Works in conjunction with inner ear and eyes for equilibrium Cerebellum
Gateway for sensation Diencephalon
Controls the involuntary part of our nervous system hypothalamus
2 hemispheres, several lobes, connected by corpus colloseum Cerebrum
Cerebrum; White matter is _________ to gray matter Internal
Folds = ? Gyri
Small grooves between gyri Sulci
Deep grooves, separate lobes and hemispheres Fissure
Folding increases ___________ Surface area
Interprets input from eyes Occipital lobes
interprets hearing, smell, learning, memory, and visual recognition Temporal lobes
Olfactory nerve CN I
Optic Nerve CN II
Vestibulochlear nerve CN VIII
Vegus Nerve CN X
CN I Smell
CN II Vision
CN VIII Hearing and balance
CN X Heart lungs, digestive, urinary
Voluntary component that innervates skeletal m SNS
Involuntary component made up of 'visceral motor neurons' that supply effectors ANS
Thoracolumbar division AKA _______________ Sympathetic Division
Fight or Flight sympathetic division
Rest and Digest Parasypathetic division
(efferent) Downstream Motor Nerves
(Afferent) Upstream Sensory Nerves
Created by: Stacey Mayo



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