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A&P final Corbitt

corbitt A&P

myopia nearsightedness
hyperopia far sightedness
presbyopia old sightedness
astigmatism irregular curvature of the lens or cornea
strabismus crossed eyes
amblyopia lazy eye
hemianopia half vision
cataract opacity of the lens
night blindness inability to see in dim light (vitamin A deficiency
glaucoma increase of intraocular pressure
lens of the eye changes shape to allow for focus on objects at varying distancs.
pupil of the eye rounded opening in the iris
iris colored part of the eye
Rods responds to light
cones respond to color
fovea= where is it located a pint of greatest visual acuity; located on the macula (on the retina)
nucleus control center of the cell; contains genes
Mitosis cell division
Mitochondria supply most of the ATP = powerhouse
cell membrane surround each cell; fragile; selectively permeable, contains phospholipids & cholesterol
golgi apparatus secretes mucus
lysosomes contain digestive enzymes
organization of the body atoms-molecules-cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organism (body)
endoplasmia reticulum cell membrane factory
antebrachial forearm
antecubital bend of the elbow
axillary armpit
brachial arm
buccal cheek
cervical neck
crual leg
deltoid shoulder
frontal forehead
inguinal groin
orbital eye
patella knee cap
thoracic chest
genu knee
cephalic head
occipital base of skull
olecranon elebow
popliteal behind the knee
sural calf of leg
planter sole of the foot
gastric stomach
hepatic liver
volar palm of the hand
caudaul toward the tail
list the 3 layers of the meninges and their locations dura-mater (outer), arachnoid-mater (middle), pia mater (inner)
how many pair of cranial nerves are there 12
how many pairs of spinal nerves are there 31
how many pairs of cervical spinal nerves 8
how many pairs of thoracic nerves are there 12
how many pairs of lumbar nerves 5
how many pairs of sacurum nerves 5
zygomticus smiling muscle
frontalis wrinkles your forehead
orbicularis oculi muscle around the eye
buccinator chewing muscle, largest mucsle used in facial expression
orbicularis oris kissing muscle
masseter closes the jaw by elevating the mandible
platysma pulls the corner of the mouth down
sternocleidomastoid decreases the angle of the neck
pectoralis major across the upper chest
intercostal muscles helps breathing
Iliopsoas keep upper body from falling backwards when standing erect
triceps boxer's muscle
benign tumor excessive growth of cells; may be small/large, remains localized, not cancerous
malignant tumor invasive, can metastasize, distorted in size, shape and color, cancerous
list the parts of the large intestine cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal, anus
how many pairs of ribs 12
how many erythrocytes 4.5-6 million mm
how many leukocytes 4,000 - 11,000 mm
how many platelets 150,000-400,000 mm
Hgb Hemoglobin
Hct Hematocrit
what is the normanl range of Hgb for women and men women 12-16 g/dL men 13-18 g/dL
mastication chewing
deglutition swallowing
chemical digestion breaks food into smaller molecules
mechanical digestion breaks food into smaller pieces
Rugae folds in the stomach or bladder when its empty
another name for jaundice icterus
hepatitis A id transmitted oral-fecal
Hepatitis B, C blood borne
The hardest substance in the body is enamel
where are Peyer's patches small intestines
The CNS first appears as the neural tube
Neuroglia nerve glue
axons carry impulses away from the cell bodies
dendrites carry impulses toward the cell bodies
the Brocc'a area controls speech
The 3 areas of the brain stem are mid-brain, pons and medulla oblongata
functions of the hypothalamus regulate body rhythm (circadian rhythm) day/night cycle, regulates body temp., regulate food intake
the spinal cord begins at _____ and ends between _______ medulla oblongata, L1-L2
CVA cerebrovascular accident
TIA transit ischemic attack
There are _____ pairs of spinal nerves 31
There are ____ pair of cervical nerves 8
There are ____ pair of thoracic nerves 12
there are ____ pair of lumbar nerves 5
there are ____ pair of sacurum nerves 5
there is ____ cocgeal nerve 1
another name for the pituitary gland is master gland, hypophysis
Gigantism excessive growth hormone in childerm
Acromegaly excessive growth hormone in childern
thyroid located at the base of the throat
what 2 major hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland T3 & T4
parathyroid glands are located on the back of the thyroid glands
function of parathyroid glands in regulating calcium
where are the adrenal glands located on top of the kidneys
the adrenal cortex produces 3 major groups of steroid hormones called corticosteroids. They are known as 'long term stressors' aldosterone - conserves sodium cortisone & cortisol - Cortisol has an antiimmflammotory affect sex hormones
whats the normal range of blood sugar 70-110 mg/dL
List and define the 3 P's of diabetes Polyuria - excessive voiding polydipsia - excessive thirst polyphagia - excessive hunger
tinnitus ringing of the ears
presbycusis old hearing
list the three ossicles and their location malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirup) - located in the middle ear
Within the cochlea is the Organ of Corti, known as the organ of hearing
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
Kyphosis hunch back
lordosis swayback
collar bone clavicle
shoulder blade scapula
Olecranon elbow
radius lower armbone on thumb side
carpel bones wrist
phalanges fingers & toes
femur thigh bone; longest, strongest, heaviest bone in the body
tibia lower leg; shin (larger bone in the lower leg
fibula lower leg, smaller bone
metatarsals sole of foot
talus ankle
metacarpals bones within the palm of the hand
humerus upperarm
acetabulum accepts the head of the femur
glenoid fossa
another name for joint is articulation
ligament attaches bone to bone
tendon attaches muscle to bone
Synarthrosis suture (immoveable joint) skull
Amphiarthrosis sightly moveable joint (symphysis) vertbrae
Diarthrosis (synovial joint) freely moveable joint; knee
diaphysis long shaft of the bone
epiphysis rounded irregular end of the long bone
periosteum tissue covering the bone
epiphyseal plate allows the bone to grow length wise; goes away when a person reaches their height
osteoblast bone building cells
osteoclast destroys bone cells 'eats'
list the 3 parts of the sternum manubrium, body, xiphiod process
list the layers of the skin epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous
list functions of the skin protection, waterproofs, synthesis & storage of nutrients, sensory reception, excretion and secretion
melanin pigment of skin
keratin tough protein
optic disk blind spot
Sudoriferous glands sweat glands
Sebaceous glands oil glands
tissues group of cells with similar function
artery carries blood away from the heart
vein carries blood to the heart
capillary site of gas exchange in the cardiovascular system
Alveoli site of gas exchange in the respiratory system
surfactant detergent like substance that allows the lungs to expand
Anatomy studies the structure of the body
physiology studies the function of the body
aorta largest artery in the body
comminuted fracture splintered
pathological fracture no trauma caused fracture
endocardium inner lining of the heart
myometrium muscle layer of the uterus
gastrocnemius calf of the leg
vastus lateralis site of injection for children under 3
triceps brachii boxer's muscle
orbicularis oculi muscle around the eye
diaphragm main muscle for breathing; dividing point of the ventricle cavity
Pulmonary circulation begins at the right ventricle and ends at the left atrium
respiratory circulation begins at the left ventricle and ends at the right atrium
list the parts of the small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
The hearts natural pace maker is SA Node
DNA = RNA= blueprint, messenger & decoder
where is the gastrocnemius located calf of the leg
phalanges fingers & toes
The liver secretes bile
the gallbladder stores bile
What equalizes the pressure in the ear Eustachian tube
what is the organ of hearing Organ of Corti
Describe the frontal, sagittal, mid-sagittal, transverse planes frontal-divides body anterior/posterior sagittal- divides body side to side mid-sagittal- divides equally side to side transverse - divides body top to bottom
Sebaceous glands are oil glands
sudoriferous glands are sweat glands
what keeps the hair and nails soft and pliable sebaceous glands
the control center of the cell nuclous
in the cell what secretes mucus golgi apparatus
metastasis to spread
what is the longest vein in the body saphenous
list the formed elements erythrocytes, leukocyctes, platelets (also known as thrombocytes
what is the white of the eye sclera
the shape of the lens is changed by what muscle ciliary muscle
the inner layer of the eye is the retina
homeostasis = balance
what is deficient w/ diabetes insipidus ADH
what is deficient w/ a goiter iodine
what is deficient w/ Ricketts vitamin D
This type of gland is important in heat regulation for our body eccrine
what happens to the arterioles in a cold environment contract
which cerebral lobe initiates muscle contraction frontal
the direct energy source for muscle contraction is ATP
Reticulocytes mature in 2-5 days
where is the radial pulse found on wrist, thumb size
What the folds over the vocal cords glottis
eupnea normal breathing
aldosterone conserves sodium
what is the range of PH for urine 4.5 -8.0
what is the range of PH for blood 7.35-7.45
list 4 stages of labor dilation-1st true contraction to 10 cm explusion - when cervix is 10cm to delivery placental - from delvery of baby to delivery of placenta Recovery - first 2-4 hrs after baby is born
what is the main function of the small intestine absorption
what is the purpose of microvilli increase the surface area to allow for more absorption
which type of membranes lines the organs which are closed to the outside serous membranes
whats the normal range of Hgb for males and females M-13-18 F 12-16
list 4 things related to the pineal gland located in the brain, responds to light, hormone melatonin, affects circadian rhythm
CHF congestive heart failure
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CNS central nervous system - consist of brain and spinal cord
PNS peripheral nervous system - consist of cranial nerves and spinal nerves
Htn Hypertension
Htg hemoglobin
H&H hemoglobin & hematocrit
overlapping functions of the nervous system sensory, integration, motor output
lines body cavities that are open to the outside mucous membranes
functions of the integumentary system (skin) protection, temperature maintenance, synthesis and storage of nutrients, sensory reception, excretion & secretion
cutaneous membrane skin
another name for dermis corium
eccrine glands are located and produce all over the body; produce sweat
apocrine glands are located and when do they activate genital & axillary areas, nipples; during stress or pain
flexion deceases the angle of the joint
extension increase angle of the joint
abduction movement away from the midline
dorisiflexion standing on heels
planter flexion standing on toes
supination palm up
pronation palm down
hamstring muscle group 3 behind your knee
zygomaticus muscle smiling muscle
frontalis muscle wink, squink, blink
gustation sense of taste
olfaction sense of small
conduction pathway of the heart SA Node, AV node, Bundle of His, Bundle Branches, Purkinje fibers
tachycardia heartbeat greater than 100 bpm
bradycardia heartbeat lower than 60 bpm
systole heart contracting
diastole heart relaxing
cardiac cycle o.8 sec
receiving chambers of the heart right and left atrium
discharging chambers of the heart right and left ventricles
blood enters the heart thru inferior/superior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid (mitral) valves, left ventricle, aorta, body
Created by: jhowe2323



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