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Ch 9 Radiation

x-ray discovery wilhelm roentgen accidentally discovered with crookes tube
radon largest component of environmental radiation
radon is a radioactive gas produced by natural decay of uranium
radon is in all earch based materials like concrete, brick, gypsu,
alpha particle helium nucleus
beta particle electron and positron
gamma rays originate inside the nucleus
radioduclides unstable atoms
radioisotope unstable isotopes
three words of ratiation time, distance, shielding
shielding of beta complication beta rays strike a target and become converted into a more penetrating radiation
film badges uses film to monitor radiation- false high in high heat situations like a car
thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) more sensitive and can be work longer than film badges
ionization displacing an orbital electrom from an atom, producing a negative ion and a positive ion
agency in charge of ratiation nuclear regulatory commission
transportation of radioactive waste DOT along with NRC
shorter wavelengs = more energy and higher frequency
energy = (speed of light)(plancks constant)/(wavelength)
Curie (CI) number of nuclear decays per second
curie's measure radioactive strength and the rate of decay
non-ionizing radiation enough energy to move around atoms or cause them to vibrate but not enough to remove electrons
example of non-ionizing radiation microwaves and visible light
ionizing radiation enough energy to move tightly bound electrons, creating ions
alpha particles two protons and two neutrons
beta particles high speed electrons
gamma rays and x-rays pure energy (photons)
stochastic effects long term low level chronic exposure
non-stochastic effects short term high level acute
which types cause external (direct) exposure gamma and x-rays
which types cause internal exposure alpha and beta
committed dose counts for long periods of continuous exposure
shield alpha with paper or skin
shield beta with heavy clothing, some beta can penetrate and burn the skin
shield gamma with thick dense sheilding like lead
radiatin maximum pernissible dose (mpd) 5 rems per year
radiation maximum for individuals .5 rems/year
mpd standard for whole populatin 0.17 rems per year
rad absorbed radiation
microwaves reflected by metal
rem roentgen equivalent in man
roentgen measures what? ionization in air by x-rays and gamma rays
I roentgen = how many ergs? 86 ergs = how many roentgen?
unit of measurement for rate at which atoms of radioactive sources (radionuclides) disintegrate curies are used for measuring what?
GSD genetically significant dose
medial lethal dose (1/2 of those exposed will die) 550-750 roentgens
mpd maximum permissable dose
what will reduce stray radiation? filters
DOE says that liquid wastes must be solid within how many years? 5
lasers emit electromagnetic radiation
medical diathermy heat produced by microwaves used for therapeutic heating
long wavelength = lower frequency and energy =
what charge does alpha particle carry? positive electric charge
how can you stop beta particles? a few millimeters of aluminum
radioisotope artificially created isotope
Created by: sanitarianpankey
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