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Neuron Structure

neuron a nerve cell that conducts impulses
axon cellular extension of a neuron that carries an impulse away from the soma
soma the cell body of a neuron; contains majority of cellular organelles
dendrites cellular extensions of a neuron that carry impulses towards the soma
Nissl bodies groups of ribosomes in the cytoplasm that produce proteins
neurotransmitters chemicals (proteins) released at a synapse
neurofibrils similar to microtubules in that they aid in transportation and support for the neuron
telodendria branches of an axon
axon end bulb enlarged portion of axon at the end of a telodendrion
axonal hillock a slight elevation from which the axon arises from the soma
golgi bodies cellular organelle that packages proteins into membranous sacs or vesicles; produces synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters
ER cellular organelle that forms a tubular network for transportation
mitochondria cellular organelles that create ATP through aerobic respiration
myelin a phospholipid (fat) that insulates an axon allowing the impulse to travel faster; produced by Schwann cells in the PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS
neurilemma the cytoplasm and nucleus that is squeezed to the outer margins as a cell wraps itself around an axon, neurilemma appears to surround the myelin
nodes of Ranvier gaps in the axon that do not contain myelin
saltatory conduction explains how an impulse "jumps" from node to node as it travels the length of an axon
white matter any area of the nervous system that contains myelin (usually contains axons)
gray matter any area of the nervous system that does not contain myelin (usually made up of somas and dendrites)
Created by: smonahan