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Chapter 3

Cells and Tissues

cytoplasm living matter contained in each cell
centrioles paired organelles - function in cell reproduction
lysosomes protect cell - digestive enzymes - eat microbes
microvilli fingerlike projections - increase absorptive area of cell
flagella single whiplike projection - (sperm cells) used for movement
mitochondria involved in energy-releasing chemical reactions Power plant of cell - contains 1 DNA molecule
Golgi apparatus flattened sacs near nucleus. Chemical processing and packaging. Collect and move chemicals from endoplasmic reticulum outward to plasma membrane
Cell nucleus controls all cell functions - contains DNA Components: Nuclear envelope; nucleoplasm; nucleolus; chromatin granules.
Plasma membrane outer boundary of cell composed of phospholipids containing protein. Selectively permeable.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Network of connecting sacs and canals. Carry substances through fluid cytoplasm.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Synthesizes chemicals. Makes new membrane.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Collects, folds and transports proteins made by ribosomes.
diffusion substances scatter themselves evenly in available space. No energy needed for this process. Movement is from high to low concentration. Examples: Osmosis and dialysis.
Filtration Movement of water and solutes caused by hydrostatic pressure on one side of membrane. (urine formation)
element A pure substance - composed of only one atom
compound substance made up of more than 1 element
matter anything that has substance and occupies space and has mass
Positively charged particles within atomic nucleus protons
Negatively charged particles within atomic nucleus neutrons
covalent bond occurs when atoms share electrons
collagen is a... protein
glycogen is a... carbohydrate
RNA is nucleic acid
cholesterol is a... lipid
NaCl is a... salt
HCl is a... acid
NaOH is base
H2O + CO2 --> H+ + HCO2- (which compound is a reactant?) CO2
Solution with an excess of hydrogen ions is acid
pinocytosis cell transport mechanism incorporates fluid or dissolved substances, trapping them in a plasma membrane pocket, pinches them off inside the cell. Pino a Greek word meaning "drink".
ATP adenosine triphosphate - molecule that breaks apart in muscle cells to yield energy for muscle contraction.
Osmosis diffusion of water BUT not solutes (substances dissolved in water) across a selectively permeable membrane.
tonicity Describes different concentrations of solutes interacting with solvents or other solutes.
Diffusion Passive transport mechanism.
Osmosis passive transport mechanism
Dialysis passive transport mechanism
Filtration passive transport mechanism
ion pump active transport mechanism
phagocytosis active transport mechanism
cystic fibrosis disease caused by inability of cells to transport chloride ions
translation the process in protein synthesis that uses information in mRNA to build a protein molecule
transcription the process in protein synthesis that forms the mRNA molecule
Name the 4 main tissues of the body epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
gene a segment of base pairs in a chromosome
genome the total genetic information packaged in a cell
endoplasmic reticulum tubelike passages that carry substances throughout the cell
Golgi apparatus chemically processes and packages substances from the endoplasmic reticulum
prophase 2nd stage of mitosis wherein chromatin condenses into chromosomes
telophase 5th stage of mitosis in which the nuclear envelope and nuclei appears
metaphase 3rd sage of mitosis in which the chromosomes align in the center of the cell.
anaphase 4th stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes move away from the center of the cell.
interphase the period of cell life in which DNA replicates in preparation for mitosis.
Created by: Allen777